New Study Finds These Tropical Fish Can Live To Be Over 80 Years Old

How long do fish live? 10 years? Twenty? Try over 80 years, according to new research on snappers.

Before now, the oldest known snapper was recorded at 60 years old, two decades younger than findings recently published in the journal Coral Reefs. Does this twenty-year age gap matter? According to fisheries scientist and the study’s lead author Dr. Brett Taylor, it matters quite a bit.

Snappers serve as an important food source around the world. Despite the snapper’s importance, the global snapper fishery is, in large part, poorly managed. This, combined with the high market value of some snapper species, led the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to officially label red snapper as ‘at risk’ for illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and market fraud in 2015.

Snappers were known to be ‘long-lived’ species before the recent discovery of the 80-year-old fish. In fact, the snapper’s long lifespan is part of what makes the fish susceptible to exploitation. “There is a direct relationship between life span and how quickly a population can replenish itself through reproduction,” explains Taylor. “Long-lived marine fishes have evolved a strategy that allows them to buffer against periods of poor environmental conditions by having lots of mature, spawning individuals present in the populations. This strategy, however, did not evolve alongside the additional pressure of fishing, which directly removes these larger and older fish from the population.”

To better understand the effects of fishing – and potentially overfishing – on snappers, Taylor and his team studied three species of snappers that are not commercially or recreationally fished. “This allowed us to examine something more similar to ‘natural population structures’ that have not been truncated or otherwise affected by fishing pressure,” explains Taylor. With a lack of fishing pressure, knowledge of the age of these snapper species compared to commercially harvested species could provide important insights into the fishing’s effects on exploited snapper populations.

In addition to studying the age of the three snapper species, Taylor and his co-authors looked at whether snapper growth rates or life spans changed with different temperatures. In warm climates, cold-blooded animals like fish must use extra energy to compensate for their warm surroundings.

Before the widespread use of using fish ear stones (otoliths) to determine a fish’s age, in a manner not so different from counting rings inside a tree, scientists largely thought tropical fish were relatively short-lived species. “However, seminal research in the 1980s and 1990s showed us that many types of tropical reef fishes have extended life spans, way past what we previously presumed,” explains Taylor.

While Taylor’s research revealed

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Suit alleges years of anti-Black discrimination at college

It has been 18 months since USC researchers exposed “a palpable climate of anti-Blackness at Southwestern College” that included Black employees being called racial slurs and being overlooked for promotions.

And even though the San Diego County community college has taken significant steps to address the report’s findings, five current and former Black employees have filed a discrimination lawsuit, suggesting the problems persist.

The lawsuit references USC’s report and outlines the employees’ allegations, which occurred both before and after the report was published in June 2018 and mirror the researchers’ findings.

USC’s report highlighted individual instances — such as Latino custodial staff making monkey sounds at Black coworkers through walkie-talkies and a Black employee being relocated from the main campus because a white female coworker said she was afraid of him — that collectively painted a damning picture of institutional anti-Black racism on campus.

A student and employee survey conducted in March showed that 40% of employees felt there was a lot of racial tension at Southwestern College and that 50% of employees had witnessed discrimination on campus.

In response to this story, Southwestern College issued the following statement:

“Southwestern College takes pride in being the only public institution of higher education in Southern San Diego County serving a diverse community of students and employees. Southwestern College works to embrace our wonderful diversity and always strives to foster a collaborative and inclusive environment.

“Southwestern College has long had policies against racism and discrimination. The College will continue to uphold the highest professional standards for all its employees and will continue to build and strengthen equity and inclusion in the workplace. The College is committed to remaining a leader in San Diego County to ensure there is no place for racial discrimination in our community.”

Southwestern College declined to directly answer any questions about the lawsuit or make employees available for interviews. Instead, the college referred specific questions to an outside attorney.

“Southwestern College was made aware of the lawsuit that has been filed by current and former employees alleging racial discrimination in their employment with the college,” President Kindred Murillo wrote in a statement. “The College is reviewing the complaint, takes the allegations raised seriously and will address any issues in an appropriate and thorough manner.”

The outside attorney, Aaron Hines of the Winet Patrick Gayger Creighton & Hanes law firm, said he was still reviewing the 37-page complaint. The document contains several allegations and names dozens of individuals; therefore, it will take some time to determine their validity.

“It’s probably premature to comment on any specific allegation,” he said.

One of the most recent allegations is said to have happened in January. Brandon Williams, a 29-year-old Black man, claims tension between the counseling department’s Black workers and everyone else was so high that he was the only Black employee to attend a training retreat.

During a discussion on race, a Latino employee dismissed USC’s report by allegedly claiming that there “is no anti-Blackness on campus; instead, the campus is

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Marc Gisin ends ski race career 2 years after serious crash

ENGELBERG, Switzerland (AP) — Swiss skier Marc Gisin announced the end of his racing career on Monday, saying he had not fully recovered from a serious crash two years ago.

In December 2018, Gisin was placed in a medical coma to be treated after hitting the snow hard at a jump on the Saslong course at Val Gardena, Italy.

“I put absolutely everything in my rehabilitation to come back from this injury once again and tried to give my body and especially my brain the time it needed to recover,” Gisin wrote on his Instagram account. “But my body won’t take it anymore.”

The 32-year-old Gisin is from a storied ski racing family. His sisters Dominique and Michelle won Olympic gold medals at, respectively, the 2014 Sochi Winter Games and 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Games.

Gisin, who placed 21st in men’s downhill at Pyeongchang, got his best World Cup results at the toughest race — fifth places in 2016 and 2018 at Kitzbühel, Austria.

He also sustained a head injury at Kitzbühel in 2015 when crashing out in a super-G race.

Gisin said Monday his race awareness was still affected and “will not allow me to ski the way I want to” ahead of the first speed races of the new season.

___

More AP sports: https://apnews.com/tag/apf-sports and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports

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College football bowl projections: Notre Dame moves into playoff as New Year’s Six shuffles

The hits keep on coming in 2020. No. 4 Ohio State became the latest team forced to put things on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Buckeyes’ game at Illinois was canceled late Friday night, and they are now one more cancellation away from not being eligible for the Big Ten Championship Game.

It was a rough week for the Pac-12 also, but why should this week be any different? After the initial College Football Playoff Rankings came out with Oregon as the highest-rated team in the conference at No. 15, the Ducks went out at lost 41-38 at Oregon State in the fog. On top of that, No. 18 USC had its game at Utah canceled, limiting the Trojans’ schedule to five regular-season games, plus a potential Pac-12 Championship Game.

I am still projecting Oregon to win the league, but obviously, their long-shot playoff chances are dead. In fact, it is looking more likely that the Pac-12 will produce a champion that does not crack the top 10 of the final CFP Rankings. That has not happened to a major conference champion in the CFP era.

No. 2 Notre Dame takes Oregon’s spot in the projected CFP as the four seed. The Fighting Irish beat North Carolina 31-17 on Friday night.

No. 3 Clemson finally took the field for the first time after the loss to Notre Dame back on Nov. 7. The Tigers mauled Pittsburgh 52-17 in quarterback Trevor Lawrence’s return to action. Clemson remains the projected three seed in the College Football Playoff.

College Football Playoff

Jan. 11

National Championship
Miami

Title game Semifinal winners

Jan. 1

Rose Bowl
Pasadena, Calif.

Semifinal

(2) Ohio State vs. (3) Clemson

Jan. 1

Sugar Bowl
New Orleans

Semifinal

(1) Alabama vs. (4) Notre Dame

As such, I now have Oregon in the Fiesta Bowl facing Northwestern. The No. 8 Wildcats took their first loss of the season at Michigan State, 29-20. Northwestern will drop out of contention for a New Year’s Six game entirely if it loses to anyone else but Ohio State the rest of the way.

No. 16 Wisconsin also had a game canceled, but this time it was due to a COVID-19 outbreak for Minnesota, the Badgers’ opponent. That is the third game canceled for Wisconsin and makes it ineligible for the Big Ten Championship Game. That would have mattered more if Wisconsin had defeated Northwestern last week. The Badgers are still projected into the Cotton Bowl to face expected Big 12 champion Oklahoma.

It is likely that the No. 11 Sooners will face No. 13 Iowa State for the Big 12 championship. The Cyclones clinched a share of the league title with a 23-20 win at Texas.

With Notre Dame moving up to the playoff, there was more shifting around with the other New Year’s Six games. Miami-Florida is now the matchup in the Orange Bowl, while Cincinnati is now projected to face Georgia in the Peach Bowl.

New Year’s Six bowl games

I still

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Don’t Miss The Year’s Last Penumbral Lunar Eclipse

KEY POINTS

  • November 2020 sky events will end with a full moon and partial penumbral lunar eclipse
  • It will be visible in North and South America, Australia and eastern Asia
  • One of the traditional names for the November full moon is the “Beaver Moon”

The November full moon will rise very early on Monday morning, and this time it will come with the fourth and final penumbral lunar eclipse of the year.

A penumbral lunar eclipse happens when the full moon moves into the penumbral shadow of the Earth, causing it to slightly lose its brightness for several hours. The previous penumbral lunar eclipse this year was the Independence Day Eclipse but, at the time, only about 35% of the moon’s surface was dimmed by the Earth’s penumbra.

This time, some 82% of the moon’s surface will pass through the Earth’s shadow, making it a more detectable event, Universe Today explained. Although it won’t be as obvious or dramatic as the other types of eclipses, it is still one that may be worth staying up for.

This final major November 2020 sky event will begin very early at 2.32 a.m. EST and peak two hours later at 4.42 a.m. EST, Universe Today said. It will be visible in North and South America, Australia and eastern Asia.

Beaver Moon

The November full moon is known by different names including the Beaver Moon and the Oak Moon, and it will rise very early on Monday morning at 4.30 a.m. EST, NASA said. It is traditionally called the Beaver Moon by Native Americans and colonial Americans because it comes at the time of the year when beavers begin to take shelter for the upcoming winter and it was also the season to trap beavers for their pelts, the Farmer’s Almanac explained.

If we go by season, the last full moon of autumn was also called the Cold Moon by the Algonquin tribes because of the long, cold nights. In Europe, the full moon before the winter solstice was also called the Oak Moon, possibly because of the ancient druid tradition of harvesting mistletoe from oak trees, according to NASA. 

Other names for it also include the “Moon Before Yule,” “Child Moon,” “Frost Moon” and “Winter Moon.” But no matter what this full moon is called in various parts of the world, people can come out very early on Monday and enjoy the penumbral eclipse while waiting for the full moon to rise.

It’s still not the final eclipse for the year because December will also bring a total solar eclipse.

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse Image: A penumbral lunar eclipse, as seen from Oria, Italy on Jan. 10, 2020. Photo: Giuseppe Donatiello/Wikimedia Commons

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Earth is 2,000 light years closer to the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole than previously thought

A new map of the Milky Way created by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan shows Earth is spiraling faster and is 2,000 light years closer to the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy than was previously thought. 

In 1985, the International Astronomical Union announced that Earth was 27,700 light years away from the black hole, named Sagittarius A*. But a 15-year analysis through Japanese radio astronomy project VERA found that the Earth is actually only 25,800 light years away. They also found that Earth is moving 7 km/s faster than they previously believed.

Sagittarius A* and black holes of the like are dubbed “supermassive” for a reason — they are billions of times more massive than the sun. 

But the NAOJ said there is no need to worry, as the latest data does not indicate the planet is “plunging towards the black hole.” It just means there is now a “better model of the Milky Way galaxy.” 

20201126-mizusawa-fig-full.jpg
Position and velocity map of the Milky Way Galaxy. Arrows show position and velocity data for the 224 objects used to model the Milky Way Galaxy. The solid black lines show the positions of the Galaxy’s spiral arms. The colors indicate groups of objects belonging the same arm. The background is a simulation image. 

NAOJ


Using the VERA Astrometry Catalog, scientists created a position and velocity map that lays out the center of the Milky Way galaxy and the objects that reside within. The first VERA Astrometry Catalog was published this year and includes data for 99 objects. 

Positioning indicates that Earth orbits the Galactic Center, where the black hole is located, at 227 km/s. Astronomers originally thought the orbit was at a speed of 220 km/s.

“Because Earth is located inside the Milky Way Galaxy, we can’t step back and see what the Galaxy looks like from the outside,” NAOJ said in a press statement. “Astrometry, accurate measurement of the positions and motions of objects, is a vital tool to understand the overall structure of the Galaxy and our place in it.”

VERA, Very Long Baseline Interferometry Exploration of Radio Astrometry, was created in 2000 and uses interferometry to aggregate data from radio telescopes located throughout Japan. Through the project, scientists can create the same resolution as a 2,300 km diameter telescope, which “is sharp enough in theory to resolve a United States penny placed on the surface of the moon,” NAOJ said. 

NAOJ scientists are hoping to gather data on even more objects, with a focus on those that are close to Sagittarius A*. 

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Top 30 Michigan high school football state finals performances over the last 30 years

Thanksgiving weekend is just not the same without high school football in Michigan.

This is the time of the year when we are supposed to be congratulating the state champions and reveling in some great memories created at Ford Field.

But with football playoff games on hold until at least Dec. 15, we’re left craving some high school football.

To help satiate your football appetite, MLive is looking back on the 30 best state championship performances in the last 30 years. With far more than 30 great individual performances to consider when combing through results from 1990 onward, this list was not easy to put together. A lot of subjective judgement went into the list too, including a player’s impact on a game or how they stacked up in the Michigan High School Athletic Association record books.

Without further delay, here are the top 30 individual state championship performances from the last 30 years.

MHSAA Football Finals: Grand Rapids West Catholic vs. River Rouge - Nov. 28, 2015

River Rouge’s Antoine Burgess (6) runs up the field in the first quarter of their 2015 MHSAA Division 5 state final game against Grand Rapids West Catholic at Ford Field in Detroit, Saturday, November 28, 2015. (Mike Mulholland | MLive.com) Mike MulhollandMike Mulholland

30. Antoine Burgess has arguably the best effort in a loss

Year: 2015, Division 5

Back in the 2015 D5 title game, River Rouge went toe-to-toe with a mighty Grand Rapids West Catholic team and lost, 40-34. However, it was a loss that should be forgotten because River Rouge quarterback Antoine Burgess gave on of the best championship game performances ever.

Finishing the game with 354 passing yards and 3 touchdowns on 13-for-19 passing, Burgess also had 70 rushing yards and 2 touchdowns. In the end, his 424 yards of total offense ranked second all-time in state championships efforts.

29. Kicker Ben Fee is key weapon in for St. Mary’s

Year: 2016, Division 3

In Orchard Lake St. Mary’s 29-28 win over Muskegon in the 2016 D3 title game, kicker Ben Fee shined in a big way. Usually, the only time kickers get the spotlight is if they kick a game-winning field goal. Although Fee did not do that in this instance, his record-setting day made a massive difference in the victory.

Fee became just the second kicker in state history to convert three field goals in a state championship game, going 3-for-3. After hitting a 32-yard field goal and a 35-yarder in the first half, Fee knocked in a 49-yard kick to give St. Mary’s a 23-21 lead with 4:47 to play. The 49-yard kick set a new championship distance record.

28. Thomas Lieto returns a pair of punts for Monroe SMCC

Year: 2005, Division 6

Although Monroe St. Mary Catholic Central lost the 2005 Division 6 state title, 31-21, to Kingsley, it was not from a lack of effort from Thomas Lieto.

Lieto scored three total touchdowns for SMCC in the loss, including becoming the only player in state history to return two punts for touchdowns in a state finals

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Earth just got 2,000 light years closer to Milky Way’s supermassive black hole

20201126-mizusawa-fig

Earth is a little closer to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way than we believed.


NAOJ

At the centre of the our galaxy there’s a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A*. It has a mass roughly 4 million times that of our Sun.

Great news! It turns out scientists have discovered that we’re 2,000 light years closer to Sagittarius A* than we thought.

This doesn’t mean we’re currently on a collision course with a black hole. No, it’s simply the result of a more accurate model of the Milky Way based on new data.

Over the last 15 years, a Japanese radio astronomy project, VERA, has been gathering data. Using a technique called interferometry, VERA gathered data from telescopes across Japan and combined them with data from other existing projects to create what is essentially the most accurate map of the Milky Way yet. 

By pinpointing the location and velocity of around 99 specific points in our galaxy, VERA has concluded the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A, at the centre of our galaxy, is actually 25,800 light-years from Earth — almost 2,000 light years closer than what we previously believed. 

In addition, the new model calculates Earth is moving faster than we believed. Older models clocked Earth’s speed at 220 kilometers (136 miles) per second, orbiting around the galaxy’s centre. VERA’s new model has us moving at 227 kilometres (141 miles) per second.

Not bad!

VERA is now hoping to increase the accuracy of its model by increasing the amount of points it’s gathering data from. By expanding into EAVN (East Asian VLBI Network) and gathering data from a larger suite of radio telescopes located throughout Japan, Korea and China. 

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Cambridge University says Darwin’s iconic notebooks, missing for years, were stolen

Two notebooks written by the famed British naturalist Charles Darwin in 1837 and missing for years may have been stolen from the Cambridge University Library, according to curators who launched a public appeal Tuesday for information.

The notebooks, estimated to be worth millions of dollars, include Darwin’s celebrated “Tree of Life” sketch that the 19th-century scientist used to illustrate early ideas about evolution. Officials at the Cambridge University Library say the two notebooks have been missing since 2001, and it’s now thought that they were stolen.

Charles Darwin’s 1837 “Tree of Life” sketch. Cambridge University Library

“I am heartbroken that the location of these Darwin notebooks, including Darwin’s iconic ‘Tree of Life’ drawing, is currently unknown, but we’re determined to do everything possible to discover what happened and will leave no stone unturned during this process,” Jessica Gardner, the university librarian and director of library services, said in a statement.

The manuscripts, known as the Transmutation Notebooks, were written by Darwin after he returned from circumnavigating the world aboard the HMS Beagle. The ambitious survey mission, conducted between 1831 and 1836, helped shape the scientist’s views about species classification, natural selection and evolution.

Darwin’s seminal work, “On the Origin of Species,” was published more than two decades after he scribbled out his iconic “Tree of Life” sketch in one of the missing notebooks.

The lost manuscripts were initially thought to have been misplaced in the university’s enormous archives, which house roughly 10 million books, maps and other objects. But an exhaustive search initiated at the start of 2020 — the “largest search in the library’s history,” according to Gardner — failed to turn up the notebooks and they are now being reported as stolen.

Cambridge University officials said a police investigation is underway and the notebooks have been added to Interpol’s database of stolen artworks.

The library is also asking for the public’s help for information about the lost notebooks.

“Someone, somewhere, may have knowledge or insight that can help us return these notebooks to their proper place at the heart of the U.K.’s cultural and scientific heritage,” Gardner said.

Information about the missing notebooks can be reported to the Cambridge University Library at [email protected] or filed anonymously to the Cambridgeshire Police or Crimestoppers.

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Darwin’s iconic notebooks have been missing for years. Now, Cambridge University says they were stolen.

Two notebooks written by the famed British naturalist Charles Darwin in 1837 and missing for years may have been stolen from the Cambridge University Library, according to curators who launched a public appeal Tuesday for information.



text, letter


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The notebooks, estimated to be worth millions of dollars, include Darwin’s celebrated “Tree of Life” sketch that the 19th-century scientist used to illustrate early ideas about evolution. Officials at the Cambridge University Library say the two notebooks have been missing since 2001, and it’s now thought that they were stolen.

“I am heartbroken that the location of these Darwin notebooks, including Darwin’s iconic ‘Tree of Life’ drawing, is currently unknown, but we’re determined to do everything possible to discover what happened and will leave no stone unturned during this process,” Jessica Gardner, the university librarian and director of library services, said in a statement.

The manuscripts, known as the Transmutation Notebooks, were written by Darwin after he returned from circumnavigating the world aboard the HMS Beagle. The ambitious survey mission, conducted between 1831 and 1836, helped shape the scientist’s views about species classification, natural selection and evolution.

Darwin’s seminal work, “On the Origin of Species,” was published more than two decades after he scribbled out his iconic “Tree of Life” sketch in one of the missing notebooks.

The lost manuscripts were initially thought to have been misplaced in the university’s enormous archives, which house roughly 10 million books, maps and other objects. But an exhaustive search initiated at the start of 2020 — the “largest search in the library’s history,” according to Gardner — failed to turn up the notebooks and they are now being reported as stolen.

Cambridge University officials said a police investigation is underway and the notebooks have been added to Interpol’s database of stolen artworks.

The library is also asking for the public’s help for information about the lost notebooks.

“Someone, somewhere, may have knowledge or insight that can help us return these notebooks to their proper place at the heart of the U.K.’s cultural and scientific heritage,” Gardner said.

Information about the missing notebooks can be reported to the Cambridge University Library at [email protected] or filed anonymously to the Cambridgeshire Police or Crimestoppers.

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