Researchers explore population size, density in rise of centralized power in antiquity

Researchers explore population size, density in rise of centralized power in antiquity
Ruins of the Temple of the Amphitheatre in the Late Preceramic Period archaeological site of Caral in Peru. Credit: Courtesy of Daniel Sandweiss

Early populations shifted from quasi-egalitarian hunter-gatherer societies to communities governed by a centralized authority in the middle to late Holocene, but how the transition occurred still puzzles anthropologists. A University of Maine-led group of researchers contend that population size and density served as crucial drivers.

Anthropology professor Paul “Jim” Roscoe led the development of Power Theory, a model emphasizing the role of demography in political centralization, and applied it to the shift in power dynamics in prehistoric northern coastal societies in Peru.

To test the theory, he, Daniel Sandweiss, professor of anthropology and Quaternary and climate studies, and Erick Robinson, a postdoctoral anthropology researcher at Utah State University, created a summed probability distribution (SPD) from 755 radiocarbon dates from 10,000-1,000 B.P., or before present.

The team found a correlation between the tenets of their Power Theory, or that population density and size influence political centralization, and the change in power dynamics in early Peruvian societies.

The team shared their findings in a report published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

“I’ve always been interested in how, in the space of just five to 10,000 years, humans went from biddy little hunter-gatherer groups in which nobody could really push anyone else around to vast industrial states governed by a few people with enormous power. From my fieldwork and other research in New Guinea, it became clear that leaders mainly emerged in large, high-density populations, and Power Theory explained why,” Roscoe says. “Unfortunately, it was difficult until recently for archaeologists to get a handle on the size and densities of populations in the past. SPD techniques are a major help in bringing these important variables into understanding how human social life underwent this dramatic transformation.”

Scientists have previously posited that population in northern coastal Peru rose during the Late Preceramic, Initial, Early Horizon and Early Intermediate periods, or between about 6,000-1,200 B.P. The SPD from Roscoe and his colleagues validates the notion.

The people who settled in the coastal plain first lived as mobile hunter-gatherers or incipient horticulturalists in low density groups, according to researchers. Millennia afterward in the Late Preceramic period, however, several developments brought increased interaction and shareable resources. People began farming, developed irrigation systems and became more settled as time passed. Eventually, some of the world’s first ‘pristine’ states formed in the plain.

The onset and growth of agriculture, irrigation and sedentism, propelled by upticks in population size and density, fostered the capacity of political agents to interact with and manipulate others. Political centralization and hierarchy formed as a result, according to researchers.

Roscoe and his colleagues demonstrated through their radio-carbon SPD that the rise in centralized authorities in early Peruvian communities that resulted from farming, irrigation and settlement coincided with an uptick in population size. The results of their work demonstrate “a broad, low-resolution congruence between the expectations of Power Theory and

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Online Education Market Size is Projected To Reach USD 245900 Million By 2026 – Valuates Reports

BANGALORE, India, Oct. 29, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Online Education Market by Data Type (Elementary Education, Junior High Education, Senior High Education), Application (Teacher, Student, Parents) and Region: Global Opportunity & Forecast to 2026 – Published on Valuates Reports in Education Category.

The global Online Education market size is projected to reach USD 245900 Million by 2026, from USD 153180 Million in 2020, at a CAGR of 8.2% during 2021-2026.

Major factors driving the growth of online education market size are growing demand to reduce the cost of education, increasing government initiatives promoting online education, and increasing smartphone penetration and the Internet.

Online learning has been more concentrated in the lives of people since the COVID-19 outbreak. The pandemic has driven colleges, universities, and businesses to operate remotely, thereby further fueling the online education market size.

Get Detailed Analysis of COVID-19 Impact on Online  Market:


Massive quantities of educational content are brought online by the service and content providers on the market. All these contents are hosted on a cloud-based platform to make it easily accessible for all the end-users. The adoption of cloud-based technology is decreasing the hosting costs and raising the need to access educational content. This growing adoption of cloud-based solutions coupled with enormous investments by major market players to enhance cloud-based education platforms’ security and efficiency is expected to drive the growth of the online education market size. The adoption of cloud-based technology is further decreasing the hosting costs and rising need to access educational content.

Artificial intelligence advancements and the exponential growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) will continue to boost the user experience of these online education platforms, and in turn, will boost the growth of the online education market size.

High Internet penetration has generated a substantial preliminary user base for companies operating in the online education market. Since the traditional education system is inadequate to provide services to all segments of the market, potential learners are searching for alternative sources of education, which is expected to fuel the growth of the online education market size during the forecast period.

Another consideration for the rapid growth of the online education market size is the cost structure. Online courses are a more flexible choice than conventional courses, and there are no travel expenses, and course materials, such as textbooks, are often available online at no cost.

Other factors leading to the growth of online education market size are the increased efficacy of animated learning, gamification of the learning module, and versatility in learning. User interaction on online education platforms is driven by simulation of concepts, level progression badges, and incentive-based learning. Online education industry players are actively competing to provide the target audience with differentiated offerings, often by providing value-added services with daily courses.

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Based on the region, North America is expected to hold the largest online education market share. The demand for online education

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Chemical Tankers Market Research Report by Product Type, by Fleet Type, by Fleet Size – Global Forecast to 2025

Chemical Tankers Market Research Report by Product Type (Inorganic Chemicals, Organic Chemicals, and Vegetable Oils & Fats), by Fleet Type (IMO Type 1, IMO Type 2, and IMO Type 3), by Fleet Size – Global Forecast to 2025 – Cumulative Impact of COVID-19

New York, Oct. 22, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — announces the release of the report “Chemical Tankers Market Research Report by Product Type, by Fleet Type, by Fleet Size – Global Forecast to 2025 – Cumulative Impact of COVID-19” –

The Global Chemical Tankers Market is expected to grow from USD 26,935.84 Million in 2019 to USD 36,349.62 Million by the end of 2025 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.12%.

Market Segmentation & Coverage:
This research report categorizes the Chemical Tankers to forecast the revenues and analyze the trends in each of the following sub-markets:

Based on Product Type, the Chemical Tankers Market studied across Inorganic Chemicals, Organic Chemicals, and Vegetable Oils & Fats.

Based on Fleet Type, the Chemical Tankers Market studied across IMO Type 1, IMO Type 2, and IMO Type 3.

Based on Fleet Size, the Chemical Tankers Market studied across Coastal, Deep-Sea, and Inland.

Based on Geography, the Chemical Tankers Market studied across Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Europe, Middle East & Africa. The Americas region surveyed across Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and United States. The Asia-Pacific region surveyed across Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. The Europe, Middle East & Africa region surveyed across France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom.

Company Usability Profiles:
The report deeply explores the recent significant developments by the leading vendors and innovation profiles in the Global Chemical Tankers Market including Bahri, Iino Kaiun Kaisha, Ltd., MISC Berhad, Mol Chemical Tankers Pte. Ltd., Navig8 Group, Nordic Tankers A/S, Stolt-Nielsen Limited, and Wilmar International Ltd..

FPNV Positioning Matrix:
The FPNV Positioning Matrix evaluates and categorizes the vendors in the Chemical Tankers Market on the basis of Business Strategy (Business Growth, Industry Coverage, Financial Viability, and Channel Support) and Product Satisfaction (Value for Money, Ease of Use, Product Features, and Customer Support) that aids businesses in better decision making and understanding the competitive landscape.

Competitive Strategic Window:
The Competitive Strategic Window analyses the competitive landscape in terms of markets, applications, and geographies. The Competitive Strategic Window helps the vendor define an alignment or fit between their capabilities and opportunities for future growth prospects. During a forecast period, it defines the optimal or favorable fit for the vendors to adopt successive merger and acquisition strategies, geography expansion, research & development, and new product introduction strategies to execute further business expansion and growth.

Cumulative Impact of COVID-19:
COVID-19 is an incomparable global public health emergency that has affected almost every industry, so for and, the long-term effects projected to impact the industry growth during the forecast period. Our ongoing research amplifies our research framework to ensure the inclusion of underlaying COVID-19 issues and potential

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