Mars microbes may have been able to live deep below the planet’s surface

This processed image shows a sideways view of a water-carved channel on Mars.


ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. 3D rendered and colored by Lujendra Ojha

Humanity is super-stoked about the idea of finding signs of ancient life on Mars. So much so we keep sending increasingly more advanced machines, like NASA’s Perseverance rover, to search for evidence. But we might need to take a much deeper look into the matter, a new study suggests. 

A research team led by Rutgers University planetary scientist Lujendra Ojha examined a perplexing problem when it comes to the long-ago habitability of Mars: the paradox of the faint young sun.

The sun wasn’t always the perky ball of heat and light we know today. “About 4 billion years ago, the sun was much fainter so the climate of early Mars should have been freezing,” Rutgers said in a statement on Wednesday. That’s a bit of mystery because we also see lots of signs of water in Mars’ past. 

Research in recent years has pointed to long-ago liquid water on the Martian surface and even the presence of wild megafloods

If it were warm and wet, Mars might have been habitable for microbial life. But how do we get meltwater with a faint young sun? The paper from Ojha and his colleagues, published in the journal Science Advances today, addresses this problem.

“I and my co-authors propose that the faint young sun paradox may be reconciled, at least partly, if Mars had high geothermal heat in its past,” Ojha said. This is a phenomenon seen on Earth where decaying elements produce heat that can melt ice sheets from below. If Mars experienced similar conditions, that could explain liquid water despite the faint sun.

The study shows that ancient Mars would have been ripe for this sort of heating action 4 billion years ago, but the planet’s surface wouldn’t have remained very friendly for liquid water thanks to a thin atmosphere and increasingly colder temperatures. “Therefore, life, if it ever originated on Mars, may have followed liquid water to progressively greater depths,” Rutgers said.

“At such depths, life could have been sustained by hydrothermal (heating) activity and rock-water reactions,” Ojha said. “So, the subsurface may represent the longest-lived habitable environment on Mars.”  

Our knowledge of Mars and its lineage of water has been expanding at a rapid clip. Recent studies have pointed to hidden ponds of briny water under the Martian polar ice

Rovers will continue to scour the Martian surface for hints of ancient life, but we may one day want to peer deeper under the planet’s skin to fully understand its history of habitability.

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Michigan State University to require students to live 2 years on campus

EAST LANSING — Undergraduates at Michigan State University will be required to live on campus a second year as part of efforts to help students toward graduating.

A two-year living requirement waived since the 1980s will be reinstated next fall, according to the school.

An analysis by Michigan State’s Office of Institutional Research shows undergraduates who live on the East Lansing campus their first two years have graduation rates about 2.5 percentage points higher than those who live on campus only their first year.

The difference is nearly 10 percentage points for some underserved student groups, the school said.

“Reinstating the second-year live-on requirement will help us better equip our students with the tools they need, while in a supportive and safe environment, to help them succeed,” Vennie Gore, senior vice president for Auxiliary Enterprises at Michigan State, said in a release.

The change is also a response to rental policies in East Lansing, Kat Cooper, chief communications officer for MSU’s residential operation, said in an email to Crain’s. Rental companies have been pressuring students to sign leases as early as a year in advance.

Cooper said around half of the university’s sophomores already choose to live on campus.

“While this will generate more revenue in the residence halls and dining program, it’s not as big of a change as may be perceived,” she said “… Instead, it will provide a smoothing of our revenue model, allowing us to plan further out and continue the significant reinvestment in our resident and dining halls that has occurred over the last decade, with over half a billion dollars in construction or renovation to these spaces.”

Incoming students currently are required to spend their first academic year, which is made up of their first two semesters, on campus. Students living in residence halls now and the current 2020 incoming class will be exempt from the change.

Students who transfer to Michigan State will be required to live on campus unless they meet the exception criteria.

Universities around the state have been hard hit financially by the coronavirus pandemic, with the vast majority of students living off campus while taking classes online. Room and board costs about $10,000 per school year.

— Crain’s Detroit Business contributed to this report

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#2 Baylor vs. #5 Illinois live stream, NCAA college basketball, TV channel, start time, odds, predictions

The No. 2 ranked Baylor Bears will face the No. 5 ranked Illinois Fighting Illini on Wednesday from the Bankers Life Fieldhouse in Indy.



Andre Hollins et al. on a court


© Provided by For The Win


Baylor is coming off a 86-52 win over Washington on Sunday to improve to 2-0 on the season. Baylor is averaging 99 points over their last two games and will look to continue that against the Fighting Illini tonight in a showcase matchup. Illinois is averaging 98.7 points per game and will look to improve to 4-0 on the season with a win tonight.

This will be a fun one, it has the signs of a high scoring affair that you will not want to miss. Here is everything you need to know to tune in to tonight’s college basketball action:

#2 Baylor vs. #5 Illinois

When: Wednesday, December 2 Time: 10:00 p.m. ET TV Channel: ESPN Live Stream: fuboTV (watch for free) 

Prediction: Both of these teams have no problem scoring and would expect a high scoring game. I think Baylor is the better team but expect to see a lot of three-point scoring at the end of the game with Illinois fighting to come back. Stay safe and take the over.

Bet: Over 142.5

NCAA Basketball Odds and Betting Lines

NCAA Basketball odds courtesy of BetMGM Sportsbook. Odds updated Monday at 8:00 p.m. ET.

Baylor (-4.5) vs. Illinois

O/U: 142.5

Want some action on College Football? Place your legal sports bets on this game or others in CO, IN, NJ, and WV at BetMGM. 

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Mars microbes may have been able to live deep below planet’s surface

This processed image shows a sideways view of a water-carved channel on Mars.


ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. 3D rendered and colored by Lujendra Ojha

Humanity is super-stoked about the idea of finding signs of ancient life on Mars. So stoked we keep sending increasingly more advanced machines, like NASA’s Perseverance rover, to search for evidence. A new study suggests we might need to take a much deeper look into the matter. 

A research team led by Rutgers University planetary scientist Lujendra Ojha examined a perplexing problem when it comes to the long-ago habitability of Mars: the paradox of the faint young sun.

The sun wasn’t always the perky ball of heat and light we know today. “About 4 billion years ago, the sun was much fainter so the climate of early Mars should have been freezing,” Rutgers said in a statement on Wednesday. That’s a bit of mystery because we also see lots of signs of water in Mars’ past. 

Research in recent years has pointed to long-ago liquid water on the Martian surface and even the presence of wild megafloods

If it were warm and wet, Mars might have been habitable for microbial life. But how do we get meltwater with a faint young sun? The paper from Ojha and his colleagues, published in the journal Science Advances today, addresses this problem.

“I and my co-authors propose that the faint young sun paradox may be reconciled, at least partly, if Mars had high geothermal heat in its past,” Ojha said. This is a phenomenon seen on Earth where decaying elements produce heat that can melt ice sheets from below. If Mars experienced similar conditions, that could explain liquid water despite the faint sun.

The study shows that ancient Mars would have been ripe for this sort of heating action 4 billion years ago, but the planet’s surface wouldn’t have remained very friendly for liquid water thanks to a thin atmosphere and increasingly colder temperatures. “Therefore, life, if it ever originated on Mars, may have followed liquid water to progressively greater depths,” Rutgers said.

“At such depths, life could have been sustained by hydrothermal (heating) activity and rock-water reactions,” Ojha said. “So, the subsurface may represent the longest-lived habitable environment on Mars.”  

Our knowledge of Mars and its lineage of water has been expanding at a rapid clip. Recent studies have pointed to hidden ponds of briny water under the Martian polar ice

Rovers will continue to scour the Martian surface for hints of ancient life, but we may one day want to peer deeper under the planet’s skin to fully understand its history of habitability.

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College football games on CBS Sports Network — Watch Louisiana Tech vs. North Texas live stream, TV channel

Buffalo jumped into the driver’s seat in the MAC’s East division with a 70-41 win over Kent State last week and will look to stay there on Saturday when the Bulls play at Ohio in one of six games on CBS Sports Network this weekend. But the 2-1 Bobcats should have a pretty good idea of how to slow Buffalo down, because it’s a recipe that has worked for them the past two seasons. It’s all about stopping Jaret Patterson.

A junior running back coming off a 1,799-yard season, Patterson made his name known around the country last week when he tied an FBS record with eight rushing touchdowns against Kent State. In all, he finished with 409 yards on the ground, falling just short of another FBS record. But in two career games against Ohio, Patterson has run for just 75 yards on 21 carries.

The Bobcats will be looking to replicate that success against Patterson and get back into contention for the league title. With a 2-1 record, Ohio is just a three-point loss to Central Michigan away from being 3-0, and beating a Buffalo team that is enjoying the national spotlight would make quite a statement. That matchup is just one of the storylines that will be at play on CBS Sports Network during week 14 of the college football season.

North Texas vs. Louisiana Tech

Date: Thursday, Dec. 3 | Time: 6 p.m. ET
Location: Apogee Stadium — Denton, Texas
TV: CBS Sports Network [Channel finder] 
Live stream: CBSSports.com | Mobile: CBS Sports App

Storylines: After playing seven straight weeks to open the season, Louisiana Tech (4-3) has been off since Oct. 31. The hiatus has cost them two key playmakers, as leading receiver Adrian Hardy and veteran Justen Henderson have opted out of the season’s final stretch. The Mean Green (3-4) dealt with a three-week break of their own and are 1-1 since.

Air Force vs. Utah State

Date: Thursday, Dec. 3 | Time: 9:30 p.m. ET
Location: Maverik Stadium — Logan, Utah
TV: CBS Sports Network [Channel finder] 
Live stream: CBSSports.com | Mobile: CBS Sports App

Storylines: Both teams beat New Mexico in their most recent game, so they should be able to use film from those games to get a reasonable gauge of what to expect. For Utah State, it was the first win in a season that’s already featured a coaching change. Co-defensive coordinator Frank Maile is two games into his stint as interim coach following Gary Andersen’s departure. Things have been a bit more stable at Air Force, where the Falcons are 2-2, including a huge 40-7 win over rival Navy in the opener.

UNLV vs. Boise State

Date: Friday, Dec. 4 | Time: 9:30 p.m. ET
Location: Allegiant Stadium — Las Vegas, Nevada
TV: CBS Sports Network [Channel finder] 
Live stream: CBSSports.com | Mobile: CBS Sports App

Storylines: The Broncos are 4-1 with their only loss coming to BYU when they were without their top two quarterbacks. So, in essence,

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#20 Kentucky vs. #7 Kansas live stream, NCAA college basketball, TV channel, start time, odds, predictions

The Kansas Jayhawks will host the Kentucky Wildcats in the State Farm Champions Classic from Bankers Life Fieldhouse in Indianapolis.



a basketball player jumping up to hit the ball


© Provided by For The Win


Kentucky comes into this one at 1-1 on the young season, beating Morehead State in their opener and falling to a solid Richmond team on Sunday. This will be one of the biggest games on their schedule this year and they will need to be ready when they take on Kansas this evening. As for Kansas, they come into this at 1-1 on the season, losing to Gonzaga but picking up a nice win over Saint Joseph’s on Friday.

This will be one you won’t want to miss, here is everything you need to know to tune in to tonight’s college basketball action:

#20 Kentucky vs. #7 Kansas

When: Tuesday, December 1 Time: 9:30 p.m. ET TV Channel: ESPN Live Stream: fuboTV (watch for free) 

Prediction: I really like Kansas in this spot and think they are the better team this year. Take the Jayhawks to win by at least 5 as this will be a fun one to watch.

Bet: Kansas Jayhawks or -4.5

How to watch NCAA Basketball this season

fuboTV has complete College Basketball coverage from all the major conferences across the country (ESPN, CBS, FOX, NBC), plus ACC Network, SEC Network, BigTen Network, Pac-12 Network, and many more.

fuboTV is available on your phone, tablet, desktop, TV, connected TV Devices including Roku. Apple TV, Amazon Fire TV plus many more.

NCAA Basketball Odds and Betting Lines

NCAA Basketball odds courtesy of BetMGM Sportsbook. Odds updated Monday at 4:00 p.m. ET.

Kentucky vs. Kansas -4.5

O/U: 143.5

Want some action on College Football? Place your legal sports bets on this game or others in CO, IN, NJ, and WV at BetMGM. 

We recommend interesting sports viewing/streaming and betting opportunities. If you sign up for a service by clicking one of the links, we may earn a referral fee.  Newsrooms are independent of this relationship and there is no influence on news coverage.

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Emory University to Host a Live Webcast With His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Press release content from Business Wire. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.

ATLANTA–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Nov 30, 2020–

The Center for Contemplative Science and Compassion-Based Ethics at Emory University will host a live webinar with His Holiness the Dalai Lama on Tuesday, December 8, 2020. A discussion titled “The Necessity of Compassion for the Survival of Humanity” will feature the Dalai Lama in conversation with Melani A. Walton, co-founder of the Rob and Melani Walton Foundation, and Dr. Sanjay Gupta, chief medical correspondent for CNN. (For speaker photos click here. )

The webcast begins at 10:30pm ET on Dec. 8, 2020 (Dec. 9 @ 9:00am India Standard Time) and will be simulcast in 14 languages. It is FREE of charge and open to anyone who’d like to participate. Advance registration is encouraged at https://compassionshift.emory.edu.

“With so many urgent concerns impacting our world, the time is right to start a global conversation about the importance of compassion,” said Lobsang Tenzin Negi, executive director of Emory University’s Center for Contemplative Science and Compassion-Based Ethics. “For more than 20 years, we’ve been working with His Holiness the Dalai Lama on programs and research that illustrate the positive effects of compassion. Our goal is to promote an understanding of the benefits of compassion and to provide programs to cultivate it across all sectors of society.”

The webinar will focus on the role compassion can play in developing a more sustainable future for humanity. It is the first event of The Compassion Shift, an initiative to advance a global culture of compassion based at Emory University.

About Us: The Center for Contemplative Science and Compassion-Based Ethics at Emory University supports a research-based approach to educating both heart and mind. An academic collaboration that began in 1998 between Emory University and the Dalai Lama, the Center investigates the science of compassion and supports its practical implementation. Current programming includes SEE Learning ™ an international K-12 education program, CBCT® Compassion Training , and the Emory-Tibet Science Initiative, a science program developed for Tibetan monastic institutions. The Center will offer live daily meditations beginning December 9.

View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201130005705/en/

CONTACT: Mary Eitel, MKE Communications

[email protected]

KEYWORD: GEORGIA UNITED STATES INDIA NORTH AMERICA ASIA PACIFIC

INDUSTRY KEYWORD: RESEARCH ENTERTAINMENT PHILANTHROPY CONSUMER UNIVERSITY CELEBRITY EDUCATION FOUNDATION SCIENCE RELIGION OTHER PHILANTHROPY HEALTH

SOURCE: Emory University

Copyright Business Wire 2020.

PUB: 11/30/2020 10:39 AM/DISC: 11/30/2020 10:39 AM

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New Study Finds These Tropical Fish Can Live To Be Over 80 Years Old

How long do fish live? 10 years? Twenty? Try over 80 years, according to new research on snappers.

Before now, the oldest known snapper was recorded at 60 years old, two decades younger than findings recently published in the journal Coral Reefs. Does this twenty-year age gap matter? According to fisheries scientist and the study’s lead author Dr. Brett Taylor, it matters quite a bit.

Snappers serve as an important food source around the world. Despite the snapper’s importance, the global snapper fishery is, in large part, poorly managed. This, combined with the high market value of some snapper species, led the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to officially label red snapper as ‘at risk’ for illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and market fraud in 2015.

Snappers were known to be ‘long-lived’ species before the recent discovery of the 80-year-old fish. In fact, the snapper’s long lifespan is part of what makes the fish susceptible to exploitation. “There is a direct relationship between life span and how quickly a population can replenish itself through reproduction,” explains Taylor. “Long-lived marine fishes have evolved a strategy that allows them to buffer against periods of poor environmental conditions by having lots of mature, spawning individuals present in the populations. This strategy, however, did not evolve alongside the additional pressure of fishing, which directly removes these larger and older fish from the population.”

To better understand the effects of fishing – and potentially overfishing – on snappers, Taylor and his team studied three species of snappers that are not commercially or recreationally fished. “This allowed us to examine something more similar to ‘natural population structures’ that have not been truncated or otherwise affected by fishing pressure,” explains Taylor. With a lack of fishing pressure, knowledge of the age of these snapper species compared to commercially harvested species could provide important insights into the fishing’s effects on exploited snapper populations.

In addition to studying the age of the three snapper species, Taylor and his co-authors looked at whether snapper growth rates or life spans changed with different temperatures. In warm climates, cold-blooded animals like fish must use extra energy to compensate for their warm surroundings.

Before the widespread use of using fish ear stones (otoliths) to determine a fish’s age, in a manner not so different from counting rings inside a tree, scientists largely thought tropical fish were relatively short-lived species. “However, seminal research in the 1980s and 1990s showed us that many types of tropical reef fishes have extended life spans, way past what we previously presumed,” explains Taylor.

While Taylor’s research revealed

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#14 North Carolina vs. UNLV live stream, NCAA college basketball, TV channel, start time, odds, predictions

The No. 14 ranked North Carolina Tar Heels will face the UNLV Rebels from Harrah’s Cherokee Center in Asheville, NC.



a close up of a man throwing a ball: No. 15: PG, Cole Anthony, North Carolina  Is Anthony the player some thought a year ago could be the No. 1 overall pick in this draft? Is he the massive disappointment who underachieved at North Carolina? Somewhere in the middle? It's worth taking him here to find out. Great value.


© AP
No. 15: PG, Cole Anthony, North Carolina Is Anthony the player some thought a year ago could be the No. 1 overall pick in this draft? Is he the massive disappointment who underachieved at North Carolina? Somewhere in the middle? It’s worth taking him here to find out. Great value.

North Carolina is coming off a 79-60 win over the College of Charleston last time out, they were able to make a 14-0 first-half run and applied their defensive scheme to control the majority of the game. Meanwhile, UNLV is looking to rebound from a 91-78 loss to Montana State in the opener. They’ll have to play better on both sides of the ball if they plan to upset the Tar Heels tonight.

This will be one you won’t want to miss, here is everything you need to know to tune in to tonight’s college basketball action:

#14 North Carolina vs. UNLV

When: Monday, November 30 Time: 7:00 p.m. ET TV Channel: ESPN2 Live Stream: fuboTV (watch for free) 

Prediction: As much as I’d love to take the point with UNLV in this game it is way too early to take the Rebels against a #14 ranked Tar Heel team. As the season goes on there will be plenty of time to bet on UNLV but this is a statement game for UNC.

Bet: UNC -13

NCAA Basketball Odds and Betting Lines

NCAA Basketball odds courtesy of BetMGM Sportsbook. Odds updated Monday at 2:40 p.m. ET.

North Carolina (-13) vs. UNLV

O/U: 153.5

Want some action on College Football? Place your legal sports bets on this game or others in CO, IN, NJ, and WV at BetMGM. 

We recommend interesting sports viewing/streaming and betting opportunities. If you sign up for a service by clicking one of the links, we may earn a referral fee.  Newsrooms are independent of this relationship and there is no influence on news coverage.

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Boston College vs. St. John’s: Live Updates

Boston College continues their play in “Conte Forum South” against former Big East foe St. John’s. The Red Storm sit at 2-0, and just entered Bubbleville after winning the Lapchick tournament with wins over St. Peter’s and Lasalle. 

Time: 6:00 pm
Where: Mohegan Sun, Connecticut
TV: ESPNU
Radio: WEEI 850
Opening Line: Pick ‘Em

Join us as we live-blog and discuss the Boston College Eagles and the University of St. John’s game here in our liveblog. Dive into the conversation — it’s easy — by simply going to the top of the site and in the bottom righthand corner of the BC Bulletin logo, click the follow button.

You can log in with Facebook or Google and either way, it’s free. From there, sound off in the comment section and share your reactions and observations with our staff, subscribers and fellow members of the BC Bulletin community as we react to the game in real time. We hope you comment, it makes watch alongs an even richer experience, and we want to hear what you have to say about the game. Disagree or agree with me? Leave your thoughts below!

Updates: Will show up in real time in the comment section.

Follow Us On Social Media:

If you haven’t followed BC Maven on the socials you are missing out on all the fun! Like our site on Facebook, and you can also follow BC Bulletin on Twitter, follow AJ Black on Twitter as well. And we now have an Instagram account, which you will want to check out as well for even more Boston College content.

Starting Lineup: 

News Update: Boston College will be playing Florida on Thursday at Mohegan Sun. The game against URI and Missouri has been cancelled. 

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