Heat sign G Breein Tyree out of University of Mississippi

Heat sign G Breein Tyree out of University of Mississippi | FOX Sports

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Remote control of heat nanosources motion and thermal-induced fluid flows by using light forces

Remote control of heat nanosources motion and thermal-induced fluid flows by using light forces
a, Multiple gold NPs (spheres of 200 nm radius) are confined by a ring-shaped laser trap (wavelength of 532 nm) and optically transported around it. These NPs rapidly assemble into a stable group of hot particles creating a confined heat source (G-NP) of temperature ~500 K. Free (not trapped) gold NPs acting as tracer particles are dragged toward the G-NP by the action of the thermal-induced water flow created around it (see Video S5 of the paper). The speed of the G-NP is controlled by the optical propulsion force which is proportional to the phase gradient strength tailored along the laser trap as displayed in b, corresponding to the transport state 1. This non-uniform propulsion force drives the G-NP reaching a maximum speed of 42 μm/s. b, Sketch of the switching of the phase gradient configuration (state 1 and 2) enabling a more sophisticated manipulation of the heat source: split and merge of the G-NP. (c), The opposite averaged propulsion forces in the split region (see state 3 at ~0 deg, shown in b) separate the NPs belonging to the original G-NP thus creating G-NP1 and G-NP2, as observed in the displayed sequence (see Video S6 of the paper). These two new heat sources are propelled by the time averaged propulsion force corresponding to state 3 in opposite directions toward the region where they finally merge into a joint G-NP again. Complex transport trajectories for G-NP delivery, for example in form of knot circuit (see Video S7 of the paper), can be created enabling spatial distribution of moving heat sources across a target network Credit: José A. Rodrigo, Mercedes Angulo and Tatiana Alieva

Today, optofluidics is one of the most representative applications of photonics for biological/chemical analysis. The ability of plasmonic structures (e.g., colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles, NPs) under illumination to release heat and induce fluid convection at the micro-scale has attracted much interest over the past two decades. Their size- and shape-dependent as well as wavelength-tunable optical and thermal properties have paved the way for relevant applications such as photothermal therapy/imaging, material processing, biosensing and thermal optofluidics to name a few. In-situ formation and motion control of plasmon-enhanced heat sources could pave the way for further harnessing of their functionalities, especially in optofluidics. However, this is a challenging multidisciplinary problem combining optics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics.


In a recent paper published in Light Science & Applications, Professor Jose A. Rodrigo and co-workers from Complutense University of Madrid, Faculty of Physics, Department of Optics, Spain, have developed a technique for jointly controlling the formation and motion of heat sources (group of gold NPs) as well as of the associated thermal-induced fluid flows created around them. The scientists summarize the operational principle of their technique, “The technique applies a structured laser-beam trap to exert an optical propulsion force over the plasmonic NPs for their motion control, while the same laser simultaneously heats up them. Since both the shape of the laser trap and the optical propulsion forces are easily and

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Heat Is Building Up In Galaxies Across The Universe [Infographic]

New research from Johns Hopkins University shows that the galaxies of the universe are getting hotter. The universe was created somewhere around 13 billion years ago and since that time planets, solar systems, and galaxies were formed out of the super-heated material that exploded forth from the big bang. It would be an easy assumption to think that since that time everything has just been cooling off and calming down, however, this new research shows that is just not the case. The universe may have been cooling off for the first 3 billion years but over the last 10 billion the galaxies of the universe have been heating up.

How do we know?

Researchers from Johns Hopkins University looked back at two decades worth of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the ESA’s Planck Mission to measure the temperature of galaxies in the universe. They discovered that the average temp of galaxy clusters today is about 4 million degrees Fahrenheit. Which is about 4 times hotter than the Sun’s corona. Furthermore, over the last 10 billion years the average temperature has increase by about 10 times. The gain in heat is the result of gases being pulled into the galaxies by gravity. Which sounds simple enough, but this drag is so powerful that the effect is similar to meteoroids hitting Earth’s atmosphere. As gravity pulls them downward they burn up and often disintegrate.

“We have measured temperatures throughout the history of the universe,” said Brice Menard, a Johns Hopkins professor of physics and astronomy. “As time has gone on, all those clusters of galaxies are getting hotter and hotter because their gravity pulls more and more gas toward them.”

In order to make this discover Yi-Kaun Chiang, a post-doctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins and Brice Menard, a Johns Hopkins professor of physics and astronomy had to develop a new technique. Using this technique, they were able to estimate the redshift of gas concentrations in microwave images. The “redshift” is the lengthening of light waves as they get older. To put it another way, the longer the wavelength the older the light wave. Using this information, they were about to collect data from these gas concentrations from up to 10 billion years ago. From that information they could see that over time the gases were becoming more concentrated and adding heat to the galaxies.

You can learn more about this discovery and their findings in the Astrophysical Journal.

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Saudi Arabia faces increased heat, humidity, precipitation extremes by mid-century

Saudi Arabia faces increased heat, humidity, precipitation extremes by mid-century
Researchers from the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology’s Center for Complex Engineering Systems used a high-resolution, regional climate modeling approach to generate mid-21st century (2041–2050) projections for Saudi Arabia under a high-emissions, high-climate-impact scenario. Credit: Angus Hamilton Haywood/Flickr

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is at a crossroads. Recent long-term studies of the area indicate that rising temperatures and evaporation rates will likely further deplete scarce water resources critical to meeting the nation’s agricultural, industrial, and domestic needs; more extreme flooding events could endanger lives, economic vitality, and infrastructure; and a combination of increasing heat and humidity levels may ultimately render the kingdom uninhabitable. Facing a foreboding future, how might the nation adapt to changing climatic conditions and become more resilient to climate extremes?


Due to the KSA’s distinctive natural and artificial features, from coastal landscapes to river beds to agricultural areas, decision-makers seeking to design actionable plans for regional and local adaptation and resilience will require projections of the KSA’s mean climate and extreme events at a higher spatial resolution than what previous studies have produced.

To that end, a team of researchers from the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology’s Center for Complex Engineering Systems used a high-resolution, regional climate modeling approach to generate mid-21st century (2041–2050) projections under a high-emissions, high-climate-impact scenario. The climate projections carry an unprecedented four-kilometer horizontal resolution and cover the entire KSA, and focus exclusively on the months of August and November. During these months, which represent, respectively, the KSA’s dry-hot and wet seasons, extreme events have been observed more frequently.

Applying this modeling approach, the team projected increasing temperatures by mid-century across the KSA, including five strategic locations—the capital city of Riyadh, religious tourism destinations Makkah and Madinah, the designated future tourist site of Tabuk, and the port city of Jeddah—in both August and November, and a rising August heat index (high heat and humidity) that particularly threatens regional habitability in Jeddah due to an increasing frequency of extreme heat index days.

The researchers also found an increase in the intensity and frequency of precipitation events in August by mid-century, particularly along the nation’s mountainous western coast, suggesting a potential for water harvesting—that could replenish local aquifers and supplement water supplies elsewhere—as a regional climate adaptation strategy to avert future water scarcity. The projections also showed a significant decline in precipitation rates in a sizeable stretch of desert extending from the southern portion of the country known as the Empty Quarter.

The study appears in the journal Atmosphere.

“The intent of our research was to highlight the potential use of our modeling approach not only to generate high-resolution climate projections that capture the effects of unique local spatial features, but also to enable local solutions for climate adaption and resilience in the region,” says Muge Komurcu, the study’s lead author and a

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New technologies to slash water consumption and to recover 30% of water and heat in industry

New technologies to slash water consumption and to recover 30% of water and heat in industry
Credit: Sam Bark/Unsplash

The European Parliament has set a new climate target for 2030—to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% compared to 1990 levels, up 40% on previous targets. Some industry groups criticize the new targets as being overambitious and too expensive while across Europe scientists and engineers have already joined forces ready to take on the new challenge. A key aspect is to develop new technologies to reduce the need of resources in the energy intensive industries.


Two weeks before the EU voted for the ground-breaking legislation, an EU-funded water recover project—iWAYS—was given the go-head with a budget of €10,596,775. Coordinated by Prof. Luca Montorsi, from the Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, and with 18 other partners, the project focuses on increasing water efficiency through three main solutions: exhaust condensation, water treatment and waste valorisation. iWAYS’ technical management will be carried out by Prof. Hussam Jouhara of Brunel University London, who is the technical director of the project.

The project will develop a set of technologies to recover water and energy from exhaust gasses in industrial processes, to meet water quality requirements and to reduce primary energy consumption. It is also expected to reduce freshwater consumption by 30% to 64%; and to recovery water and heat from humid gasses by 30%. Additional materials from flue gas such as valuable acids or particulates will be recovered, thus improving the raw material efficiency in production and reducing emissions detrimental to the environment.

Such projects have taken on greater importance in the light of the EU’s biggest green stimulus package in history: the European Green Deal. It’s a package that puts the fight against climate change at the epicenter of the economic recovery needed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The European Green Deal relies on transforming industry in order to help it cut exhaust gasses and recover water and energy as much as possible. With green and digital solutions, the emphasis will be placed on resource and energy-intensive sectors since they consume more than 50% of all the energy used by industry in the EU.

Prof. Hussam Jouhara, scientific director of the project stated: “Industries release one-third of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which 70% stem from heat generation. One way to reduce the environmental footprint, thus, is to recover the generated heat and reuse it in other industrial processes.”

iWAYS will officially launch in December 2020 and develop a wide array of non-disruptive technologies that complement environmental challenges with cost-effectiveness and productivity. “The project intends to transform white plumes from industry´s chimneys –starting with ceramics, chemicals and steel– in a source of water and energy as these gas emissions represent one of the main streams that discharge used water,” explains Luca Montorsi.

The project, funded under the EU H2020 program, will last four years and will also consider alternative freshwater sources –such as surface run-off—to meet sustainable water supply goals. It will also develop robust technologies to reduce brine volumes and to recycle

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Hell Yes, InSight’s Heat Probe Is Now Completely Buried on Mars

NASA’s InSight lander retracting its robotic arm, revealing the spot where the mole is now completely buried.
Gif: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Gizmodo

There’s some happy news to report from the Red Planet, as the stubborn Mars InSight heat probe, known as “the mole,” is now completely buried. It’s an encouraging development, as the surrounding dirt could coax the device into drilling deeper through the Martian crust.

The ongoing saga of the InSight lander’s Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package has taken an important turn, or at least we hope. The self-hammering drill, built by the German space agency (DLR) and operated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is now completely obscured by red Martian dirt—a sign that it may soon be able to dig properly, since it needs friction to move downwards. Up until this point, it’s mostly been bouncing up and down like a useless pogo stick.

The purpose of the mole, as the cool kids call it, is to take temperature readings beneath the Martian crust, at a maximum depth of 10 feet (3 meters). But this device has proven to be the most frustrating aspect of the InSight mission, which began in November 2018 when the lander arrived at Elysium Planitia. Until recently, the 16-inch-long (40-centimeter) probe could barely clear the surface, and at one particularly distressing point—around a year ago at this time—Mars rejected the drill, spitting it back out onto the surface.

Now, it’s not mole that’s uncooperative, but rather the Martian dirt. The mole’s self-hammering action is causing the dirt to clump together, forming a gap around the device instead of collapsing around it. Unfortunately, NASA can’t simply pick up the mole and try digging elsewhere: the probe doesn’t have a “grapple point” that can be grasped by InSight’s robotic arm.

Starting last year, to prevent the mole from moving in the wrong direction, mission planners used InSight’s scoop to try to pin the probe to the bottom of the pit and keep it in the ground. This worked for a bit, but NASA hit a snag in July when the mole stopped descending. The team blamed duricrust—a cement-like mixture in which granules stick together—for the interruption. NASA hit the pause button at this point because the InSight arm was required for other tasks, but it’s now back on mole detail.

As NASA reports, the mole is now fully buried in the Martian regolith and out of sight. All that’s visible now is the ribbon cable sticking out of the ground (the cable is laden with temperature sensors designed to measure the heat flow beneath the surface).

“I’m very glad we were able to recover from the unexpected ‘pop-out’ event we experienced and get the mole deeper than it’s ever been,” explained Troy Hudson, the JPL engineer who’s leading this effort, in the NASA statement.

Hey, he said “unexpected ‘pop-out’ event,” not me. I’m simply the messenger.

Anyhoo, the next step will be for

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Tropical Atlantic to heat up again with two storms possible into next week

Following a brief pause in the record-setting 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, forecasters say as many as two storms could be spinning at once next week as atmospheric conditions become conducive for development. One storm may take shape a few hundred miles from Bermuda, while another system slowly organizes near Central America.

A total of 25 systems have reached tropical storm strength or greater so far in the Atlantic Ocean this season, with the most recent storm being Hurricane Delta.

With a couple of storms possibly in the offing in the coming days, this season is rapidly closing in on the record of 28 named storms set in 2005. That year was also the only other year that the Greek alphabet had to be utilized.

The next systems to reach tropical storm strength, or have maximum sustained winds of 39 mph or greater, would take on the names Epsilon and Zeta.

A zone east-southeast of Bermuda is likely to be the breeding ground of the next tropical system, according to forecasters.

This satellite image from Saturday morning, Oct. 17, 2020, shows the swirl of showers and thunderstorms that forecasters are monitoring for tropical development in the near future. Bermuda is located in the far top left of the image. (CIRA/RAMMB)

“Showers and thunderstorms continue to better organize around an elongated area of low pressure several hundred miles east-southeast of Bermuda,” AccuWeather Senior Meteorologist Rob Miller said.

“This organizing trend is expected to continue into Sunday, and a subtropical depression or storm is likely to form by then,” Miller added.

A subtropical storm has both tropical and non-tropical characteristics. Even if the system is first classified as subtropical, it may become fully tropical over the warm waters of the Atlantic.

This feature could meander at times to the south and west next week, before eventually being steered toward the north. A cold front that may be located near or along the East coast of the United States late next week should help deter the storm from bringing direct impacts to the region.

“Whether that eventual northward track brings the storm west or east of Bermuda is yet to be known. As a result, all interests in Bermuda should pay close attention to the progress of this storm,” Miller said.

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Farther south and west, AccuWeather meteorologists are actively monitoring an area of the Caribbean Sea where a weather system called a gyre may form.

“A gyre is a slowly spinning area of low pressure that generates areas of showers and thunderstorms. A gyre itself does not typically evolve into a tropical system, but disturbances that are drawn into the unsettled setup can develop into tropical depressions, tropical storms and even hurricanes,” AccuWeather Senior Meteorologist Alex Sosnowski said.

“Confidence continues to grow for an area of low pressure to develop by the end of the week over the western portion of the Caribbean Sea,” Miller said.

Any potential storm is likely to be slow moving

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