Global soils underpin life but future looks ‘bleak’, warns UN report

Global soils are the source of all life on land but their future looks “bleak” without action to halt degradation, according to the authors of a UN report.

a truck traveling down a dirt road: Photograph: Zsolt Czeglédi/EPA

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Photograph: Zsolt Czeglédi/EPA

A quarter of all the animal species on Earth live beneath our feet and provide the nutrients for all food. Soils also store as much carbon as all plants above ground and are therefore critical in tackling the climate emergency. But there also are major gaps in knowledge, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) report, which is the first on the global state of biodiversity in soils.

The report was compiled by 300 scientists, who describe the worsening state of soils as at least as important as the climate crisis and destruction of the natural world above ground. Crucially, it takes thousands of years for soils to form, meaning urgent protection and restoration of the soils that remain is needed.

The scientists describe soils as like the skin of the living world, vital but thin and fragile, and easily damaged by intensive farming, forest destruction, pollution and global heating.

“Soil organisms play a crucial role in our everyday life by working to sustain life on Earth,” said Ronald Vargas, of the FAO and the secretary of the Global Soil Partnership.

Prof Richard Bardgett, of the University of Manchester, who was a lead author of the report, said: “There is a vast reservoir of biodiversity living in the soil that is out of sight and is generally out of mind. But few things matter more to humans because we rely on the soil to produce food. There’s now pretty strong evidence that a large proportion of the Earth’s surface has been degraded as a result of human activities.”

a truck driving down a dirt road: Scientists describe soils as like the skin of the living world, vital but thin and fragile, and easily damaged by intensive farming, forest destruction, and pollution.

© Photograph: Zsolt Czeglédi/EPA
Scientists describe soils as like the skin of the living world, vital but thin and fragile, and easily damaged by intensive farming, forest destruction, and pollution.

Related: UK is 30-40 years away from ‘eradication of soil fertility’, warns Gove

Since the Industrial Revolution, about 135bn tonnes of soil has been lost from farmland, according to Prof Rattan Lal, the 2020 winner of the World Food prize.

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People should be worried, said Bardgett. “If things carry on as they are, the outlook is bleak, unquestionably. But I think it’s not too late to introduce measures now.”

Prof Nico Eisenhauer, of Leipzig University, another lead author of the report, said: “It is a major issue that we are dependent on this thin layer that is sometimes just a couple of centimetres, sometimes several metres, but a very vulnerable, living skin.”

Related: The world needs topsoil to grow 95% of its food – but it’s rapidly disappearing

Soils simultaneously produce food, store carbon and purify water, he said, so they are “at least as important” as the climate and above-ground biodiversity crises. “If you’re

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Online Education Market – Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast 2019 – 2026 – – Press Release

DUBLIN–(Business Wire)–The “Online Education Market – By Product, By Vertical, and By Region: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast 2019 – 2026” report has been added to’s offering.

This report analyzes and estimates the online education market at global, regional, and country level. Assessment of the global online education analysis provides detailed insights of the market growth and restraining factors along with their impact analysis at global level from 2020 to 2026.

The report includes in-depth analysis of the strategies adopted by utmost competitors in the global online education market. The research study contains market attractiveness analysis, wherein segment product, technology, vertical, and regional segments are benchmarked on the basis of their market size and growth rate.

The research study provides a decisive view on the global online education market based on product, technology, vertical, and region. All the segments of online education market have been analyzed based on the past, present, and future trends. The market is estimated from 2020-2026. The regional segmentation consists the past, present, and forecasted demand for Middle East & Africa, North America, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Europe. The regional segment is further divided into the U.S., UK, France, Germany, China, Japan, India, and Brazil among others.

Detailed analysis of major market players in the global online education market includes their financial overview, business strategies, new developments, and the product offered by them in the market.

This will help in analyzing the market competition are Lynda.Com, Pearson PLC, McGraw-Hill Education, Blackboard Inc., Aptara Inc., Adobe Systems Inc., Docebo, Edmodo, PowerSchool Group LLC, Tata Interactive Systems among others.

Key Topics Covered:

Chapter 1. Preface

Chapter 2. Executive Summary

Chapter 3. Global Online Education Market- Industry Analysis

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Industry ecosystem analysis

3.3. Deployment landscape

3.4. Online Education Market: Market Dynamics

3.5. Market Drivers

3.5.1. Growing demand to reduce the cost of education

3.5.2. Increasing penetration of smartphones and the Internet

3.6. Restraints

3.6.1. Availability of abundant free content and lack of awareness

3.7. Opportunity

3.7.1. Market Opportunity Analysis

3.8. Porter’s Five forces Analysis

3.9. Market Attractiveness Analysis

Chapter 4. Global Online Education Market-Competitive Landscape

4.1. Company Market Share Analysis

4.1.1. Global Online Education Market: Company Market Share, 2019

4.2. Strategic Development

4.2.1. Acquisitions & Mergers

4.2.2. New Product Segment Launches

4.2.3. Agreements, Partnerships, collaborations and Joint Ventures

4.2.4. Research and Development and Regional Expansion

4.3. Price Trend Analysis

Chapter 5. Global Online Education Market-Product Segment Analysis

5.1. Global Online Education Market Overview: by Product Segment

5.2. Content

5.3. Services

Chapter 6. Global Online Education Market-technology Segment Analysis

6.1. Global Online Education Market Overview: by technology Segment

6.2. Mobile Learning

6.3. Learning Management System

6.4. Virtual Class

6.5. Others

Chapter 7. Global Online Education Market-Vertical Segment Analysis

7.1. Global Online Education Market Overview: by Vertical Segment

7.2. K-12

7.3. Higher Education

7.4. Corporate

7.5. Others

Chapter 8. Global Online Education Market-Regional Segment Analysis

Chapter 9. Company Profiles

9.1. Lynda.Com

9.2. Pearson PLC

9.3. McGraw-Hill Education

9.4. Blackboard Inc.

9.5. Aptara Inc.

9.6. Adobe

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Oxford University breakthrough on global COVID-19 vaccine

OXFORD, United Kingdom, Nov. 23, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vaccitech’s scientific founders at University of Oxford announce positive high-level results from an interim analysis of clinical trials of AZD1222 in the UK and Brazil.

  • Phase 3 interim analysis including 131 Covid-19 cases indicates that the vaccine is 70.4% effective when combining data from two dosing regimens
  • In the two different dose regimens vaccine efficacy was 90% in one and 62% in the other
  • Higher efficacy regime used a halved first dose and standard second dose
  • Early indication that vaccine could reduce virus transmission from an observed reduction in asymptomatic infections
  • There were no hospitalised or severe cases in anyone who received the vaccine
  • Large safety database from over 24,000 volunteers from clinical trials in the UK, Brazil and South Africa, with follow up since April
  • Crucially, vaccine can be easily administered in existing healthcare systems, stored at ‘fridge temperature’ (2-8 °C) and distributed using existing logistics
  • Large scale manufacturing ongoing in over 10 countries to support equitable global access

The vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, also known as AZD1222, was co-invented by Vaccitech and Oxford University’s Jenner Institute.

Professor Andrew Pollard, Director of the Oxford Vaccine Group and Chief Investigator of the Oxford Vaccine Trial, said:

“These findings show that we have an effective vaccine that will save many lives. Excitingly, we’ve found that one of our dosing regimens may be around 90% effective and if this dosing regime is used, more people could be vaccinated with planned vaccine supply. Today’s announcement is only possible thanks to the many volunteers in our trial, and the hard working and talented team of researchers based around the world.”

Professor Sarah Gilbert, Professor of Vaccinology at the University of Oxford, said:

“The announcement today takes us another step closer to the time when we can use vaccines to bring an end to the devastation caused by SARS-CoV-2. We will continue to work to provide the detailed information to regulators. It has been a privilege to be part of this multi-national effort which will reap benefits for the whole world.”

The University of Oxford, in collaboration with AstraZeneca plc, today announces interim trial data from its Phase III trials that shows its candidate vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019, is effective at preventing COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) and offers a high level of protection.

Bill Enright, Vaccitech Chief Executive Officer, remarked:

“The world needs a cost effective, easy to distribute, COVID-19 vaccine that demonstrates safety and works to control the continued spread of this devastating pandemic. Vaccitech is proud to have been a small part of the team, together with Oxford University and AstraZeneca, that moved this vaccine from concept to reality in record time. These latest data give us further confidence in the potential of our ChAdOx technology platform to address other major unmet needs in infectious diseases and cancer.”

Following the trial reaching the target for interim analysis, the independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) recommended that the team at Oxford conduct its first analysis on all the

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Overseas aid budget for education cut by a quarter this year, data shows | Global development

The overseas aid budget for education was slashed by more than a quarter by the government this year, even before this week’s further axing of a third of aid spending, according to analysis seen by the Guardian.

As anger met the government’s announcement this week, it was revealed that it has already reneged on the Tory manifesto pledge by cutting primary and secondary education funding as part of £2.9bn of cuts made by Dominic Raab in July. On Wednesday in parliament, while announcing he would seek to legally cut the aid budget from 0.7% to 0.5% of gross national income, Raab reiterated a promise to prioritise girls’ education, which was immediately dismissed as “empty rhetoric” by the shadow international secretary.

Labour MP Preet Gill said data analysis showed the government had now broken not one, but two manifesto commitments. Save the Children, whose researchers did the analysis, said the government’s promises on aid and development are “meaningless currency”.

The overseas aid budget from the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) is currently £8.7bn–£2.8bn less than the £11.5bn spent in 2019–20.

There has been a 26% reduction in spend on education, according to analysis of data from the International Aid Transparency Initiative, provided by FCDO. Health has seen a 16% increase, due to a refocus on activities related to Covid-19, such as the global fund, medical research and infectious disease control. However, other areas of health funding that are critical for children – such as basic nutrition, family planning and reproductive healthcare – have been cut, the data shows.

Richard Watts, a senior adviser in development finance at Save the Children, said: “Primary and secondary education were the focus of these education cuts. While they have maintained projects specifically related to girls’ education, the cuts to primary and secondary education will have an important impact on girls’ education.”

Watts said he was also concerned about the reprioritising of the health budget due to Covid, because it has meant a decline in funding to basic nutrition and on family planning and reproductive health.

Gill contrasted the drop in aid funding for primary and secondary schooling with Raab’s comments in the Commons. “The analysis today really calls into question his saying we are going to use the aid budget for girls’ education. That is simply not the case.

“You can’t trust this government, because that’s two commitments. They reneged on the 0.7% manifesto and again on girls’ education. This idea that he’s saying he has prioritised girls’ education at the very same time that there’s been cuts in the money spend by ODA [official development assistance] on education by his department. We’ve seen one programme that they did cut was supporting 200,000 vulnerable young girls completing their schooling, and also cutting teenage pregnancies and sexual violence programmes in Rwanda. These are really important when it comes to addressing inequality.

“So I don’t think we can trust his latest pledge that he is going to prioritise girls going forward … He announced the £2.9bn

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Global COVID-19 cases surpass 60 mln — Johns Hopkins University

People's Daily Online

People’s Daily Online

(Xinhua) 09:00, November 26, 2020

NEW YORK, Nov. 25 (Xinhua) — Global COVID-19 cases surpassed 60 million on Wednesday, according to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University.

The global case count reached 60,037,735, with a total of 1,413,325 deaths worldwide as of 12:27 p.m. local time (1727 GMT), the CSSE data showed.

The United States reported the most cases and deaths around the world, which stood at 12,642,245 and 260,591, respectively. India recorded 9,222,216 cases, ranking second in the world. Brazil followed India with 6,118,708 cases and 170,115 deaths, the world’s second largest death toll.

Countries with more than 1.5 million cases also include France, Russia, Spain and Britain, while other countries with over 50,000 deaths include India, Mexico, Britain, Italy and France, according to the CSSE tally.

Global cases topped 40 million on Oct. 19, and hit 50 million on Nov. 8. It took 20 days for the global caseload to jump from 40 million to 50 million, and only 17 days from 50 million to 60 million.

The United States remains the worst-hit nation, accounting for more than 20 percent of global cases.

On Tuesday, the United States identified 172,935 new cases, marking the 22nd consecutive day that the country had reported more than 100,000 new cases.

U.S. medical professionals and experts feared the case number will continue to surge after the Thanksgiving holiday.


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World is not on track to achieve global deforestation goals

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Last week, a progress report from the New York Declaration on Forests announced that the world is not on track to meet the declaration’s goals to reduce forest loss and promote sustainable and equitable development. The report identifies lack of transparency as one of the main barriers to progress, and calls for greater involvement of civil society and grassroots movements while planning and implementing large-scale development projects.

First endorsed in 2014 at the United Nations Climate Summit, the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF) is a voluntary and non-binding agreement to end deforestation globally by 2030. Since its inception, the NYDF has expanded to include more than 200 endorsers spanning national and subnational governments, non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, and groups representing Indigenous peoples and local communities. The NYDF comprises ten goals to achieve various targets, with the flagship goals of ending forest loss and restoring degraded forests.

Each year, the NYDF Progress Assessment releases a comprehensive report highlighting select goals from the declaration. This year’s report focuses on NYDF Goals 3 and 4: to significantly reduce forest loss from economic sectors besides agriculture by 2020, and to promote sustainable and equitable development by supporting alternative livelihoods that do not result in further deforestation.

The report finds that we are not on track to meet any of the ambitious NYDF targets. Increased rates of large-scale infrastructure development and natural resource extraction threaten forests, and the global demand for both industries is only growing as global population climbs. In fact, infrastructure alone is to blame for upwards of 17% of deforestation in tropical and subtropical forest countries, and megaprojects are currently being implemented in all major tropical forest regions.

One such megaproject, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), was established in 2013 by the Chinese government to enhance trade and investment in Eurasia and beyond. The BRI encompasses several projects related to hydropower, coal-fired power plants, roads and railways. Approximately 126 countries, mostly low- and middle-income countries have signed on, according to the NYDF report.

Although China touts the initiative as a means of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, there have been nearly 300 independent research studies that have identified major environmental risk factors associated with the project, particularly threatening the natural environment in Southeast Asia and tropical Africa. One such study published last year found that the BRI and its effects would endanger 4,138 animal species and 7,371 plant species, with BRI corridors intersecting with 1,738 important areas for birds and other biodiversity.

The environmental risks associated with specific BRI projects are not always easily accessible due to the decentralized planning approach to the megaproject. Furthermore, because the BRI crosses several borders, it remains difficult to account for the cumulative impact of the initiative since environmental impact assessments must be conducted independently in each country involved. Research suggests that BRI investors may prefer to invest in countries with weaker regulations overall.

These issues highlight an important key finding from the NYDF report: one of the main barriers

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Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement

Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
Curtis Pozniak in wheat field. Credit: Christina Weese/USask

In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.

The research results, just published in Nature, provide the most comprehensive atlas of wheat genome sequences ever reported. The 10+ Genome Project collaboration involved more than 95 scientists from universities and institutes in Canada, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, the U.K., Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Israel, Australia, and the U.S.

“It’s like finding the missing pieces for your favorite puzzle that you have been working on for decades,” said project leader Curtis Pozniak, wheat breeder and director of the USask Crop Development Centre (CDC). “By having many complete gene assemblies available, we can now help solve the huge puzzle that is the massive wheat pan-genome and usher in a new era for wheat discovery and breeding.”

Scientific groups across the global wheat community are expected to use the new resource to identify genes linked to in-demand traits, which will accelerate breeding efficiency.

“This resource enables us to more precisely control breeding to increase the rate of wheat improvement for the benefit of farmers and consumers, and meet future food demands,” Pozniak said.

One of the world’s most cultivated cereal crops, wheat plays an important role in global food security, providing about 20 percent of human caloric intake globally. It’s estimated wheat production must increase by more than 50 percent by 2050 to meet an increasing global demand.

In 2018 as part of another international consortium, USask researchers played a key role in decoding the genome for the bread wheat variety Chinese Spring, the first complete wheat genome reference and a significant technical milestone. The findings were published in the journal Science.

“Now we have increased the number of wheat genome sequences more than 10-fold, enabling us to identify genetic differences between wheat lines that are important for breeding,” Pozniak said. “We can now compare and contrast the full complement of the genetic differences that make each variety unique.”

Nils Stein of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) and project co-leader from Germany said, “Given the significant impact of the Chinese Spring reference genome on research and application, it is a major achievement that just two years later we are providing additional sequence resources that are relevant to wheat improvement programs in many different parts of the world.”

The 10+ Genome study represents the start of a larger effort to generate thousands of genome sequences of wheat, including genetic material brought in from wheat’s wild relatives.

The research team was able to track the unique DNA signatures of genetic material incorporated into modern cultivars from several of wheat’s undomesticated relatives by breeders over the century.

“These wheat relatives have been used by breeders to improve disease resistance and stress resistance

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Evidence of the interconnectedness of global climate

Evidence of the interconnectedness of global climate
An iceberg in the central Scotia Sea in 2019. Credit: Thomas Ronge

To see how deeply interconnected the planet truly is look no further than the massive ice sheets on the Northern Hemisphere and South Pole.

Thousands of kilometers apart, they are hardly next-door neighbors, but according to new research from a team of international scientists—led by alumna Natalya Gomez Ph.D.’14, and including Harvard professor Jerry X. Mitrovica—what happens in one region has a surprisingly direct and outsized effect on the other, in terms of ice expanding or melting.

The analysis, published in Nature, shows for the first time that changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were caused by the melting of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. The influence was driven by sea-level changes caused by the melting ice in the north during the past 40,000 years. Understanding how this works can help climate scientists grasp future changes and instability as global warming increases the melting of major ice sheets and ice caps, researchers said.

The study models how this seesaw effect works. They found that when ice on the Northern Hemisphere stayed frozen during the last peak of the Ice Age, about 20,000 to 26,000 years ago, it led to reduced sea-levels in Antarctica and a growth of the ice sheet there. When the climate warmed after that peak, the ice sheets in the north started melting, causing sea-levels in the southern hemisphere to rise. This rising ocean triggered the ice in Antarctica to retreat quickly to about the size it is today over thousands of years.

The question of what caused the Antarctic ice sheet to melt so rapidly during this warming period has been a long-standing enigma.

“That’s the really exciting part of this,” said Mitrovica, the Frank Baird Jr. Professor of Science in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. “What was driving these dramatic events in which the Antarctic released huge amounts of ice mass? This research shows that the events weren’t ultimately driven by anything local. They were driven by sea level rising locally but in response to the melting of ice sheets very far away. The study establishes an underappreciated connection between the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet and significant periods of melting in the Northern Hemisphere.”

The retreat was consistent with the pattern of sea level change predicted by Gomez, now an assistant professor of earth and planetary sciences at McGill University, and colleagues in earlier work on the Antarctic continent. The next step is expanding the study to see where else ice retreat in one location drives retreat in another. That can provide insight on ice sheet stability at other times in the history and perhaps the future.

“Looking to the past can really help us to understand how ice sheets and sea levels work,” Gomez said. “It gives us a better appreciation of how the whole Earth system works.”

Ice sheets on the move: how north and south poles connect
Researchers were able, for the first time, to simulate, simultaneously, changes in both sea levels and ice dynamics in
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Netflix Doubles U.K. Production Budget to $1 Billion, After ‘The Crown,’ ‘Sex Education’ Global Success

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Streaming giant Netflix has doubled its U.K. production budget to $1 billion, following the global success of shows including “The Crown” and “Sex Education.”

Netflix is spending this budget on producing more than 50 shows in the U.K., despite a fraught year that has seen production on “The Witcher” shut down twice due to the coronavirus pandemic.

“The U.K. is an incredibly important market to Netflix and we’re proud to be increasing our investment in the U.K.’s creative industries,” said a Netflix spokesperson. “‘The Crown,’ ‘Sex Education’ and ‘The Witcher’ are among the shows that have been made in the U.K. this year and will be watched by the world. And these shows are a testament to the depth of talent that exists here.”

“We will continue to invest in the best content in every genre, and are fully committed to supporting British production and creative talent for many years to come,” the spokesperson added.

The Netflix U.K. production budget is second only to its U.S. spend, and is the largest of all its hubs in Europe. The streamer is investing heavily in studio space to house its productions. Last year, Netflix set up a huge production hub at Shepperton Studios outside London. Of course, given Disney has a similar deal at Pinewood Studios, studio space is at a premium around London, and could lead to a strain on facilities.

Meanwhile, Netflix shows continue to remain in the public eye. The fourth season of “The Crown” has received flak from the family members of those portrayed in the show.

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Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., and the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Enter Into a Global Pharmacovigilance Agreement

PRINCETON, N.J. & NEW YORK–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., announced an agreement with research experts from the Columbia University Irving Center Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health to help support the epidemiological needs of Otsuka Global Pharmacovigilance (GPV) for products, enhanced training, and employee education.

The three-year agreement, through October 2022, draws on the extensive expertise of faculty at Columbia Mailman and the Columbia University Irving Medical Center’s Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons. Faculty members will work with Otsuka on activities such as post-marketing safety and effectiveness studies, the development of data registries, and investigations of rare exposures and outcomes. Columbia Mailman faculty will also provide executive education to Otsuka’s pharmacovigilance and clinical research and development employees, including conducting workshops in epidemiology and biostatistics, journal clubs, seminars, and formal courses.

“The expertise and scientific depth of the Columbia University Irving Medical Center faculty will help us enhance the epidemiological support for various Otsuka Global Pharmacovigilance regulatory reports and publications,” said Mirza I. Rahman, MD, MPH, senior vice president and chief global pharmacovigilance officer, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., and a Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health alumnus. “Patient safety is our highest priority and the knowledge sharing, learning, and scientific exchange resulting from this initiative is consistent with Otsuka’s commitment to excellence in pharmacovigilance.”

Leading Columbia Mailman School’s research team is Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD, MPH, professor of Epidemiology and Myron M. Studner, professor of Cancer Research in Medicine at the Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons. Other members of the Columbia University Irving Medical Center team include Drs. Judith Jacobson, Lambert Lumey, Jason Wright, and Daniel Freedberg.

“Our work with Otsuka is a unique and innovative approach to enhancing drug surveillance and safety efforts,” said Dr. Neugut of the Mailman School.

About Otsuka

Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. is a global healthcare company with the corporate philosophy: “Otsuka–people creating new products for better health worldwide.” Otsuka researches, develops, manufactures and markets innovative products, with a focus on pharmaceutical products to meet unmet medical needs and nutraceutical products for the maintenance of everyday health.

In pharmaceuticals, Otsuka is a leader in the challenging areas of mental, renal and cardiovascular health and has additional research programs in oncology and on several under-addressed diseases including tuberculosis, a significant global public health issue. These commitments illustrate how Otsuka is a “big venture” company at heart, applying a youthful spirit of creativity in everything it does.

Otsuka established a presence in the U.S. in 1973 and today its U.S. affiliates include Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. (OPDC) and Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. (OAPI). These two companies’ 1,700 employees in the U.S. develop and commercialize medicines in the areas of mental health, nephrology and cardiology, using cutting-edge technology to address unmet healthcare needs. Otsuka’s most recently approved product in the U.S. is the first-ever treatment for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a genetic disorder in which fluid-filled cysts develop in the

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