Elon Musk says SpaceX’s new Starship rocket has 33% chance of success

  • SpaceX is planning to fly a Starship rocket prototype to its highest altitude yet this weekend, according to road closures and a Notice to Airmen issued for the aerospace company’s launch site in southern Texas. 
  • The spacecraft should fly 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) into the air. Previous prototypes have only made short hops of about 150 meters (492 feet).
  • SpaceX CEO Elon Musk said there was a lot that could go wrong, and gave the rocket a one-in-three chance of landing in one piece.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

This weekend, Elon Musk’s space-exploration company, SpaceX, is poised to take a big step forward in its quest to further revolutionize space travel.

Musk tweeted on Sunday that a prototype of SpaceX’s enormous Starship spacecraft — a fully reusable vehicle the company wants to use to send humans to the moon and Mars — will soon undergo its first high-altitude test.

The flight attempt to 15 kilometers (9.3 miles), follows a successful November 24 rocket-engine test firing of the Starship prototype, called SN8 or serial no. 8. The test also comes after a successful “hop” flight in August to roughly 150 meters (492 feet) using a previous prototype called SN5.

On Wednesday the Federal Aviation Administration issued a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) for a rocket launch from the Boca Chica Village in southern Texas, where SpaceX is developing Starship, from Friday at 8 a.m. CT through Sunday at 5 p.m. CT.

However, both a NOTAM and road closures are required for launch. The Cameron County judge has issued Boca Chica road-closure notices for every weekday through December 9, but the only overlap with the NOTAM is Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. CT.

Musk: ‘Maybe 1/3 chance’ of a successful flight and landing

SpaceX Starship.JPG

A prototype of SpaceX’s Starship spacecraft at the company’s facility in Boca Chica, Texas (September 28, 2019).

REUTERS/Callaghan O’Hare


This test flight will be a big step in testing whether the design can withstand the rigors of flights to higher altitudes.

Musk said in a follow-up tweet on Wednesday that a “lot of things need to go right” for SN8 to land intact, adding that he thinks there’s “maybe 1/3 chance” that it does.

However, should SN8 fail, SpaceX’s Starship factory is cranking out more prototypes, and SN9 could soon be ready to take its place for future testing.

Read more: SpaceX may spend billions to outsource Starlink satellite-dish production, an industry insider says — and could lose $2,000 on each one it sells

SpaceX’s Starship spacecraft is made up of two sections, the Super Heavy booster and the Starship rocket ship, which Musk claims will be able to carry 100 people to Mars at a time. The entire spacecraft stands at 120 metres (394 feet) tall. 

In October, Musk said SpaceX has a “fighting chance” of sending an uncrewed Starship rocket to Mars in 2024, two years later than previously hoped. 

Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s president and chief operating officer said October 23 the Starship

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SpaceX’s next Starship rocket may soar to 15 kilometers this weekend, but Elon Musk says there’s a 2-in-3 chance the flight may fail



a man standing in front of a tall building: SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk, is building and launching Starship prototypes in Boca Chica, Texas. SpaceX; Mark Brake/Getty Images; Business Insider


© Provided by Business Insider
SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk, is building and launching Starship prototypes in Boca Chica, Texas. SpaceX; Mark Brake/Getty Images; Business Insider

  • SpaceX is planning to fly a Starship rocket prototype to its highest altitude yet this weekend, according to road closures and a Notice to Airmen issued for the aerospace company’s launch site in southern Texas. 
  • The spacecraft should fly 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) into the air. Previous prototypes have only made short hops of about 150 meters (492 feet).
  • SpaceX CEO Elon Musk said there was a lot that could go wrong, and gave the rocket a one-in-three chance of landing in one piece.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

This weekend, Elon Musk’s space-exploration company, SpaceX, is poised to take a big step forward in its quest to further revolutionize space travel.

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Musk tweeted on Sunday that a prototype of SpaceX’s enormous Starship spacecraft — a fully reusable vehicle the company wants to use to send humans to the moon and Mars — will soon undergo its first high-altitude test.

The flight attempt to 15 kilometers (9.3 miles), follows a successful November 24 rocket-engine test firing of the Starship prototype, called SN8 or serial no. 8. The test also comes after a successful “hop” flight in August to roughly 150 meters (492 feet) using a previous prototype called SN5.

On Wednesday the Federal Aviation Administration issued a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) for a rocket launch from the Boca Chica Village in southern Texas, where SpaceX is developing Starship, from Friday at 8 a.m. CT through Sunday at 5 p.m. CT.

However, both a NOTAM and road closures are required for launch. The Cameron County judge has issued Boca Chica road-closure notices for every weekday through December 9, but the only overlap with the NOTAM is Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. CT.

Musk: ‘Maybe 1/3 chance’ of a successful flight and landing



a flock of birds flying over a building: A prototype of SpaceX's Starship spacecraft at the company's facility in Boca Chica, Texas (September 28, 2019). REUTERS/Callaghan O'Hare


© REUTERS/Callaghan O’Hare
A prototype of SpaceX’s Starship spacecraft at the company’s facility in Boca Chica, Texas (September 28, 2019). REUTERS/Callaghan O’Hare

This test flight will be a big step in testing whether the design can withstand the rigors of flights to higher altitudes.

Musk said in a follow-up tweet on Wednesday that a “lot of things need to go right” for SN8 to land intact, adding that he thinks there’s “maybe 1/3 chance” that it does.

However, should SN8 fail, SpaceX’s Starship factory is cranking out more prototypes, and SN9 could soon be ready to take its place for future testing.

Read more: SpaceX may spend billions to outsource Starlink satellite-dish production, an industry insider says — and could lose $2,000 on each one it sells

SpaceX’s Starship spacecraft is made up of two sections, the Super Heavy booster and the Starship rocket ship, which Musk claims will be able to carry 100 people to Mars at a time. The entire spacecraft stands at 120 metres (394 feet) tall. 

In October, Musk said SpaceX has a

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Werner Herzog: Elon Musk’s Mars city is a ‘mistake’ and an ‘obscenity’

Elon Musk is on a mission to make humans a multi-planetary species by building an independent city on Mars.

The billionaire tech mogul has said that the Starship spacecraft designed by his rocket company, SpaceX, could launch on its first flight to Mars as early as 2024. Eventually, he hopes that the rocket will shuttle people to the red planet en masse. His goal is to build a city of 1 million Martians by 2050.

Legendary filmmaker Werner Herzog thinks that would be “a mistake.”

“I think Elon Musk stylizes himself as some sort of a technological visionary,” Herzog told Inverse. “Because he has to sell his electric cars. Wonderful that he does that. He has to sell his reusable rockets. Wonderful that he’s doing it.”

But, he added, “I disagree with him when he postulates and preaches about colonizing Mars.”

spacex mars martian colony city cities settlement starship rocket launch glass bubble dome habitat rendering artist concept

An illustration of SpaceX’s planned Starship rocket system lifting off from a Mars city and heading back to Earth.


SpaceX



Humans should “not be like the locusts,” Herzog said, but instead should “look to keep our planet inhabitable.”

Musk has argued that Earth cannot be habitable forever and that the human species ought to outlast it. If the climate crisis doesn’t render our planet inhospitable to human life, an asteroid impact could easily do so. Even if we’re lucky, in a few billion years the swelling sun will boil off Earth’s oceans and, eventually, expand to swallow our planet entirely.

For Musk, colonizing Mars is the first step to escaping this fate. But Herzog told Inverse he is not convinced.

“I have to tell not only Elon Musk, but everyone,” he said. “It is an obscenity. The thought alone is an obscenity.”

He compared the entrepreneur’s plans to the 20th-century rise and fall of communism and fascism.

“Thank God, both these gigantic utopias were brought to an end,” he said, adding that the same will happen to Musk’s Martian city. “Our century very quickly will bring to an end technological utopia like colonizing Mars.”

Still, Herzog said he would “love to go [to Mars] with a camera with scientists.”

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It’s Time For Elon Musk To Admit The Significance Of Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Co-founder and CEO of HyPoint, the company developing zero-carbon emission hydrogen fuel cell systems for aviation and urban air mobility.

“Fuel cells = fool sells,” Tesla CEO Elon Musk tweeted on June 10. “Staggeringly dumb,” he continued. As CNBC noted, Musk has previously “dismissed hydrogen fuel cells as ‘mind-bogglingly stupid.'” He has also “called them ‘fool cells,’ a ‘load of rubbish,’ and told Tesla shareholders at an annual meeting years ago that ‘success is simply not possible.'”

Clearly, Musk is not a fan of hydrogen fuel cells — at least not for use in cars — which makes sense since he built the Tesla empire on lithium-ion batteries. 

The debate between lithium-ion and hydrogen has raged for decades. Both can be used as clean, zero-emission alternatives to fossil fuels, but while hydrogen fuel cells have been around much longer (indeed, it is what NASA used to put men on the moon in 1969), it was lithium-ion batteries that ultimately proved much easier to commercialize, particularly for use in passenger cars.

Part of that is because hydrogen fuel cells are more complex; they generate energy by creating and harnessing chemical reactions between hydrogen and oxygen while leaving water vapor as the only emission. And while hydrogen is lightweight, incredibly efficient and the most abundant resource in the universe, it currently takes a lot of energy to harness hydrogen.

“Hydrogen is an energy storage mechanism. It’s not a source of energy,” Musk said at a 2015 press conference. “Electrolysis is extremely inefficient as an energy process. If you took a solar panel and used the energy from that solar panel to just charge your battery pack directly compared to trying to split water, take the hydrogen, dump the oxygen, compress the hydrogen to an extremely high pressure or liquefy it and then put it in a car and run a fuel cell, it is about half the efficiency. It’s terrible.”

In some ways, Musk is right. For passenger cars, the economics for hydrogen just aren’t there yet, nor is the infrastructure. However, he’s missing the ways in which hydrogen fuel cells fit into the bigger picture wherein the economics do make sense — greening the electrical grid and zero-emission aviation, trucking, shipping, urban air mobility, space travel and more.

Governments and leaders around the world are rallying behind hydrogen as a key component to their plans for addressing climate change, not just in the transportation sector but across their entire energy grid. Consider that the European Commission announced its Hydrogen Strategy for a climate-neutral Europe in which it said that hydrogen is “an important part of the solution to meet the 2050 climate neutrality goal of the European Green Deal.” Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden announced a $2 trillion clean energy plan that includes renewable hydrogen technology innovation. And Boris Johnson announced 335 million pounds ($446 million) in funding to help drive down greenhouse gas emissions, including the development of hydrogen fuel. Those announcements were made just within the

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SpaceX Says There Are No Laws on Mars, So Maybe Elon Musk Will Be President

From Popular Mechanics

Users who downloaded SpaceX’s new Starlink app noticed something fishy this week: The software’s terms of service claim there’s no law in place that will govern life on Mars, or just off of Earth at all. We’re not lawyers … but is that something Elon Musk and SpaceX can even enforce?

You love Musk. So do we. Let’s nerd out over his creations together.

SpaceX’s terms are, at the very least, ignoring the international laws of space set forth beginning nearly 60 years ago. Musk recently made news when he said “many” people will die on Mars, but no one imagined it would be in a lawless, PUBG-style low-gravity battle royale. Then again, Mars is named for the God of War.



The Independent
reports on the statement in question:

“‘For services provided on Mars, or in transit to Mars via Starship or other colonisation spacecraft, the parties recognise Mars as a free planet and that no Earth-based government has authority or sovereignty over Martian activities,’ the governing law section states.”

This is purely wishful thinking, because the discussion of who can and will do what in outer space has been the subject of major treaties for the last six decades. The idea that you can just travel into space and turn it into Lord of the Flies reinforces grim stereotypes about the imperialist attitude of space “colonization.”

The Independent cites the Earthlight Foundation’s declaration on space freedom as similar to SpaceX’s language for the Starlink app. Interestingly, the declaration appears only in an image file and doesn’t have a searchable (or accessible) text version. It begins:

“It is the Inalienable Right of all Human (and sentient) beings to go any place in the universe; To do anything they choose to do, To use any resources they may find, To own the land or space on or within which they live.”

Earthlight goes on to say that as long as people don’t interfere with each other’s property, the foundation believes space is “free by all, for all, and to all.” Unlike the international outer space treaties, the Earthlight Foundation dates back to just 2012.

What it’s describing isn’t freedom, though—at least not for everyone. It’s just colonization.

Elon Musk plans to get to Mars first, and that means he can quickly establish a fiefdom where he makes his own rules by a first-come, first-serve system. Instead, the outer space treaties establish clear rules about weapons and natural resources to try to preserve at least a semblance of order for anyone who does wish to explore space. When the treaties began, the pie-like dividing of Antarctica among international groups was still fresh in the public’s mind.

So what are the downsides of a lawless or corporate-ruled Mars? In Michel Faber’s 2012 novel The Book of Strange New Things, a corporate colony far from Earth still has very rigid rules because of the tenuous nature of life in outer space. Musk’s lawless terms might sound

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How Elon Musk Is Revolutionizing Space Force Operations (Again)

In the 1950s, President Eisenhower began the development of the MIDAS program, a satellite constellation that would carry infrared sensors to detect hostile ICBM launches. The architecture of this nascent mission and the companies that provisioned it have continued to this day as America’s missile defense surveillance system. Over the decades, this system has been developed, fielded and evolved much like the rockets that once launched those satellites into orbit – by a government-directed industry. The companies, operating under simple cost reimbursed contracts, have diligently built and operated these exquisite systems for generations. Their biggest challenge to success became less technical over time and more focused on keeping Congressional funding to ensure sufficient funding to counter an evolving threat. This industrial construct created by venerable legacy contractors has provided an early warning capability that has been critical to America’s nuclear deterrent for over 60 years. 

Enter Elon Musk. When DARPA first took a chance and partnered with Musk on the small Falcon 1 launch in 2007, SpaceX got its first foot through the door of the Defense Department and ultimately brought Space Force launch costs down by as much as 80%. Critics who had at one time scoffed at Musk’s often-overzealous ambitions – especially after his first few failures – are now eating their words, over a decade since NASA first inked his partnership deal. Having demonstrated his tenacity and success with rockets, Musk’s critics should be mindful as he takes on his next challenge to the status quo: the seemingly intractable missile defense architecture.

Over the course of 60 years, our legacy companies have developed and upgraded existing constellations and ground systems, per the government’s explicit direction. Through a recently awarded contract with the Space Development Agency (SDA), however, Musk is again challenging conventional wisdom with the most vital of Space Force missions. If the SDA is successful in fusing commercial industry and private capital, there is a strong likelihood for a SpaceX repeat performance. The result? A few billion dollars saved and a better positioned U.S. space economy for competition on the world stage.

Soon after signing its next generation communication system contracts, the SDA awarded contracts to two outsider companies for missile tracking satellites. Each company will build four satellites in what will eventually become a proliferated constellation of approximately one hundred, each one utilizing commercial or “off the shelf” spacecraft subsystems and components.

Winning a hard-fought fixed-price competition with their own commercial designs, both SpaceX and L3Harris (an historic supplier to traditional defense companies) are now under contract to address the hardest part of missile defense – tracking the next generation of hypersonic missile threats. These companies are building the first grouping, or “tranche” as SDA calls it, of a constellation that addresses advanced missile threats and provides resiliency to the existing missile warning system. By leveraging commodity, commercial spacecraft, the SDA is building much of the SmallSat

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SpaceX’s Elon Musk Suggests Alien Life May Be Hiding In These 2 Spots

KEY POINTS

  • Elon Musk responded to a young fan who sent a letter asking if he believes there is life on other planets
  • The SpaceX founder suggested Mars or Europa may harbor extraterrestrial life
  • NASA is aiming to send its Europa Clipper spacecraft to the Jupiter moon by 2023

Is there life on other planets? Elon Musk suggested that it may be possible to find extraterrestrial life if space missions look in certain places.

On Thursday, the SpaceX and Tesla founder shared the two most likely spots where humans may be able to find extraterrestrial life in response to a letter sent to him by a 13-year old boy, who asked if Musk believes there is life on other planets. The two places he mentioned? Earth’s neighbor, Mars, and Jupiter’s moon, Europa.

“Doesn’t seem to be any life in this solar system. Maybe under the ice of Europa or extremophile bacteria below the surface of Mars,” he tweeted

Musk added a link that leads to the Wikipedia page of the Drake equation — a probabilistic equation that is used by scientists to estimate the possible number of communicating extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.

This is not the first time Musk has been asked about alien life. 

“As far as we know, we’re the only consciousness or the only life that’s out there,” Musk said last year during the unveiling of Starship Mk1, a prototype for SpaceX’s massive reusable launch system, Space.com reported. “There might be other life, but we’ve seen no signs of it.”

“People often ask me,” he shared. “‘What do you know about the aliens?’ and I’m like, ‘Man, I tell you, pretty sure I’d know if there were aliens. I’ve not seen any sign of aliens.'”

Meanwhile, NASA announced last year that it is sending the Europa Clipper spacecraft to Jupiter’s mysterious and icy moon, targeting a launch date between 2023 and 2025. The mission aims to study the conditions of Europa’s environment and determine whether it is suitable for supporting life.

Jupiter’s sixth-largest moon is said to have a surface temperature roughly 238 degrees below zero and is believed to have oceans underneath its icy surface, according to NASA. 

Mars, on the other hand, has displayed shreds of evidence of conditions that could have supported life. Due to dry riverbeds, ancient shorelines, and salty surface chemistry discovered by orbiters and rovers at Mars, it is believed that the red planet once had liquid water and even lakes. Scientists also found evidence of organic compounds, or the chemical building blocks of life, on Mars using data from NASA’s Curiosity Rover.

In July, NASA sent off the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover to the red planet with the goal of finding signs of past microbial life.

Both places mentioned, Mars and Europa, are still largely unexplored. However, the space missions to these locations may soon unlock more of their secrets and determine whether or not extraterrestrial life had once lurked, or are lurking, on Mars and

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Elon Musk’s Mars City Must Pass This Acid Test

astronaut walking on mars

Nisian HughesGetty Images

  • Elon Musk knows that any successful Mars settlement must be able to survive on its own.
  • He also knows that Mars settlers will likely die on the Red Planet.
  • Humankind could be cruising toward a new existentially threatening Great Filter.

    Elon Musk recently said that the true test of his major plans to colonize Mars is simple: Will a human settlement on Mars survive if new resources and people from Earth eventually stop coming to the Red Planet?

    You like Musk. So do we. Let’s nerd out over his creations together.

    The reason for Musk’s speculation links with his expressed worldview about the future of humankind. There are a lot of factors at play in what could sound like a simple comment. Inverse reports:

    “The acid test, really, is, if the ships from Earth stop coming from any reason, does Mars die out?” Musk told interviewer Robert Zubrin during the livestreamed event. “For any reason. It could be banal, or it could be nuclear armageddon,” he added.

    Let’s unpack some of the questions this open-ended comment raises. First, Musk recently also said that he expects many Mars settlers will die during the process of traveling to and settling on Mars in the longer term. That’s a common theme, from imperialist settlements like Jamestown or Roanoke to the explorers who first crossed Antarctica or sailed across the Pacific Ocean.

    But the idea of restocking ships, or the lack thereof, is a key distinction between different schools of thought about space living. Musk’s supporters are pretty literal and optimistic when interpreting his comments about Mars plans, but Musk has always planned for some steady stream of new traffic to bring fresh supplies or passengers. And depending on how the technology evolves, those ships could even bring back what very little waste the settlement produces.

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    The thing is, they’ll likely be very rare. The distance between Mars and Earth varies a great deal, with the shortest trip expected to take at or over six months. That means both a ton of pressure to include everything and to edit down to only the barest essentials in order to keep payloads feasible.

    If new supplies only come, let’s generously say, a few times a year, that means the settlers on Mars will already have the mindset of scarcity, careful use, and circular economy. But it’s still very different to plan to use just one, say, bottle of aspirin versus no aspirin ever again. If the right thing goes wrong in the right way, settlers could lose access to 3D printing, for example, or environmental heating.

    So how do you plan in a way that includes resiliency on this level? That’s a really tough question, and that’s why it’s at the front of Musk’s—and any Mars settlement advocate’s— mind. In

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    Elon Musk: SpaceX could send Starship rocket to Mars in 2024

    • Elon Musk said Friday that SpaceX has a “fighting chance” of sending an uncrewed Starship rocket to Mars in 2024, later than previously hoped.
    • The SpaceX Starship rocket, designed to hold as many as 100 passengers and carry heavy payloads, is still in early testing stages.
    • Musk said in 2017 that on his “aspirational” timeline, SpaceX would send a rocket to Mars in 2022, followed by a crewed mission two years later.
    • He told the Mars Society on Friday that the new Starship dates were “just guesses.”
    • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

    SpaceX founder Elon Musk said Friday the company has a “fighting chance” of sending its Starship rocket to Mars in 2024 — two years later than hoped.

    During Mars Society’s 2020 virtual conference, Musk said SpaceX could send an unmanned Starship rocket, which is currently in its prototype stage, to Mars in 2024 provided it sees “exponential improvement in our rate of innovation.”

    He later said this date was only a “guess.”

    Musk said in 2017 that his “aspirational” timeline was for SpaceX to send cargo ships to Mars in 2022, followed by a crewed mission two years later.

    SpaceX has completed two successful “hop” tests of the rocket at the company’s Texas facility, where it was launched hundreds of feet into the air before returning back to Earth.

    starship sn5 hop spacex

    The SN5 Starship model lifting off for a “hop” test on Tuesday, August 4, 2020.


    SpaceX



    The rocket is designed to hold as many as 100 passengers and carry heavy payloads.

    Musk also told the Mars Society he was “80% to 90% confident” the aerospace giant will reach orbit next year with the rocket.

    He said he was “50% to 60% confident” that SpaceX will be able to bring the rocket and booster back after it reaches orbit — but said “we’ll probably lose a few ships before we get the atmospheric return and landing right.”

    Musk told Mars Society President Robert Zubrin over Zoom that his estimated dates for the Starship mission “are just guesses.”

    “It’s not like I have all these secret dates and I’m just keeping them from people,” the SpaceX and Tesla CEO said.

    Many of Musk’s promised timelines over the years have been missed. 

    Musk said in February 2019 he was “certain” Tesla would make self-driving vehicles by the end of 2019. Tesla is due to release a beta version of its “Full Self-Driving” feature this month to some drivers.

    Musk said in 2015 the company’s vehicles would be driverless by 2017. 

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    Elon Musk ‘guesses’ SpaceX could send a ship to Mars as soon as 2024

    If you want to go to Mars, timing is everything, and Elon Musk no longer thinks his company SpaceX will make it to the red planet when the next window of opportunity opens in 2022. 

    The world’s leading fan of leaving this world had previously hoped to send a robotic mission to Mars in 2022, followed by a crewed trip a couple of years later. During an interview at the Mars Society virtual convention on Friday, Musk said he now thinks his next-generation Starship spacecraft could be ready as soon as 2023, in time for a launch window in 2024.

    The orbits of Earth and Mars around the sun bring the two planets closest to each other roughly every two years. That’s why we saw three robotic missions to our neighboring world, including NASA’s Perseverance rover, launch within weeks of each other in July. 

    “I think we’ve got a fighting chance,” Musk said of making the 2024 Mars transport window. 

    To get there, though, Musk says his team will need to pick up its pace of innovation and he isn’t afraid to break a few things along the way.

    “We’ll probably lose a few ships,” he said when asked about the development process for Starship, which is designed to eventually take dozens of people at a time to Mars.

    So far, early Starship prototypes have made short, low-altitude “hops” from the SpaceX test facility in Texas. Musk hopes the early models will make it to orbit for the first time next year.  He added that the company could demonstrate refueling capability in orbit in 2022 and begin making trips to the moon shortly after that.

    The company’s founder and chief engineer cautioned that he has no secret dates for achieving these milestones. 

    “These are just guesses,” Musk told Mars Society President Robert Zubrin over Zoom. 


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    As for who’ll get to go to Mars, Musk said that once there are a million people who both want to go to the red planet and can afford it, that should be enough to sustain a city. So in other words, it seems the first martians are likely to be wealthy earthlings. 

    Once on Mars, Musk said, the first order of business will be setting up a propellant plant. He also mentioned the idea of sending robotic droids to the surface that people could control remotely from Earth. 

    Naturally, Musk also has designs on more than Mars. He mentioned the idea of using Starship or other craft to visit the suddenly exciting atmosphere of Venus, large asteroids, the moons of Jupiter and even the Kuiper Belt and furthest reaches of the solar system.

    “We need to make the leap of going to another planet first,” he said.   

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