The Science Behind Fire

Fire, which can transform from an atmosphere- enhancing candle to a devastating blaze in seconds, is at its most basic level a series of chemical reactions. Understanding the way that the element of fire is created can inspire respect for the ways in which this element can be used for good – cooking, ambiance – or for destruction, in the case of neglected flames that get out of control.

What is fire, really?

Fire is a chemical process. Chemical processes either absorb energy or release it as molecules rearrange themselves. The chemical process present in fire is called oxidation, which which oxygen atoms combine with hydrogen and carbon to form water and carbon dioxide.

Fire arises when oxygen in the atmosphere reacts with a type of fuel, such as wood or gasoline. To complete the combustion response, you must use heat to fuel the ignition temperature. How does this occur?

Fuel gets hot: Be it a match, focused light, friction, or lightning, a force outside of the fuel itself must heat up the wood, paper, or fabric until it reaches a state of decomposition.

Fuel decomposes: Once the fuel reaches approximately 300 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius), it begins to decompose. Some of the decomposed material releases in the form of volatile gases, known as smoke, which is composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. These gases release into the air as smoke.

Char develops: The reminder of the material turns to char. Char is almost pure carbon and ash, which includes the unburnable minerals in wood (calcium, potassium, etc.). When you purchase charcoal, you are essentially buying char, or wood that has been heated to remove most of the volatile gases, leaving the carbon behind. Charcoal fires produce no smoke because those volatile gases have already absorbed into the air.

How does combustion work?

Fire lights when a combustion reaction takes place. Combustion occurs when fuel reacts with an oxidizing agent , releasing energy in the form of heat or light. In the case of fire, the fuel is usually wood, gasoline, or coal, combined with oxygen.

At best, fire creates warmth and light. At worst, it can demolish your home. By understanding the way in which fire is created, you can more accurately grasp how this powerful chemical reaction can be used and contained in your daily life, and the safety precautions necessary to make sure it never causes a home fire. …

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Career Downshifting

There are many who say that downshifting is something someone does in their 50's when they can afford to take out their good early pension and play around in other things.

I'm sure there are people to what this applications but not all.
My pension is one third per annual of what my rent, council tax, electricity, phone and water bills come to! Then comes the road tax. MOT, Insurance for the van and public liability etc .. This is before eating as well!

Downshifting is also, too often, associated only with people packing up the city and buying a smallholding to 'play farming'. Well, I've heard of various instances; the Stockbroker who bought a Model Railway Shop, the BT Manager who's now a Weaver and the successful up-market Car Salesman who now runs a village store. Every one has their own 'Good Life'.
We can not escape the fact that the most important thing to consider before making any move is financial. It's probably this which makes it more possible to downshift if you've accrued a good private pension over some years.

It's a combination of 'what do I want' and 'what have I got'.
Certainly, I would never advise anyone simply giving it all up one day without a period of planning and thinking.
Let's go into some of the subject matters;


Some people thrive on the stress and strains of the 'fast lane' and those types are important because without them we'd all be Basket Weavers!
But for some, it's going with the flow when deep down we have an itch to really do something we want to do. We have a dream and this dream becomes stronger until such time as the existing job just becomes routine, affects our health and often the family life as well.

This is when the urge kicks in, sitting on a train which is 30 minutes late after a 12 hour day in the office where you've achieved nothing or you have achieved something and got no thanks for it.
You want the right of life to lead your own destiny – life is not a practice run.

At the end of the day, only you know 'why'.

Family and Friends

It's no good doing it if the family can not come along as well and you have the full backing of them, especially your partner. With them on board, you're more than half way there because they will enjoy your enthusiasm, share your ups, share your downs and it'll be for you all and not just for you.

If you're in a really well paid job and and your socializing reflects this, you'll soon find who your real friends are! I've lost a few but I've gained so many. Most will think you've thrown a wobbly 'but – so what !!!


If you're in work and pretty safe, you've got loads of time to plan. This is where the frugality comes in. You can start living the …

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Career Management – How to Deal With Failure-The Need to be Resilient

Being topical this time, the England football team has come to terms with failure, and all those pictures of footballers and fans in tears is a powerful picture of how we can get hurt and disappointed. It would be rare for anyone not to feel similar, but what we need to do is to think about how we will react.

There are many ways to deal with disappointment and many times I have spoken with people who did not get a promotion and their way of dealing with it was to disengage from the company, to moan and do the minimum. Sometimes this would coincide with a new boss taking over their team, into the job they had hoped to get. What sort of impression does this give to their boss – someone who is not interested and helpful in the job and who makes negative remarks? Their chance of another promotion reduces the longer they maintain this approach.

I appreciate it is hard but they need to turn the situation around. Companies will sometimes ask me to work with someone who is not being effective at work, but the company wants to help them return to how they used to be. With listening and understanding most of the people I have worked with have been able to turn the situation around, and in large companies this can be through a sideways move for a new challenge. However one or two let their feelings fester and they can find that they lose their job, not usually a good position to be in. When I worked with Martin it was a wake up call and we were careful to plan his strategy for the next organization he was to join.

I personally remember years ago that a boss did not give me a bonus. I was so disappointed; I always had one and it was usually enough to pay for the family holiday. I spoke to my boss, found out the reasons, and it was hard not to be defensive when I found them unfair. I learned that I could not expect my boss to have my best interests to heart and made sure I had regular update meetings with her seeking feedback on how she thought I was doing so I could address things straight away. I also got myself a transfer and like a fairy tale was promoted within a year. …

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One Careful Owner – The Science of Selling Cars

When it comes to upgrading or offloading your car, there are several routes you can take. One of the most popular methods is to upgrade your car through a part exchange. This means that you give a car dealer your old car in exchange for a reduction in price on your new one. This is a quick and easy way of upgrading your vehicle, though you will not get as much as you would if you were to sell it though other means.

The other limitation of this method is that it only works if you want to buy another car from the dealer. There may not be another car that you want, or that's in your price range; maybe you have decided to go car-free or you're moving abroad and no longer need a car?

If, for whatever reason, part exchange is not feasible, many people try and sell their car onto their friends or work mates. This can be good for a quick sale, and it also costs little or nothing to advertise – just a quick email or a few phone calls. However, selling to people you know does not always have a happy ending. The problems can come when something goes wrong with the car. The buyer may feel that you are still responsible for it in some way, and may expect a refund or some sort of compensation. This can lead to a very awkward situation and friendships have been outlined over less, so the best advice, if you're going to take this route, is to make out a clear agreement in writing that you both sign relating any warranty period, refunds and repair costs. This way, you both know exactly what the agreement is at the time of the sale, so there a much less chance of any misunderstandings later on.

If no-one you know is interested in buying your car, or you'd rather avoid any potential awkwardness, then classifieds are an ideal place to advertise cars for sale . Local papers, and publications such as Auto Trader have always been popular places to buy and sell vehicles and nowdays online classifieds are also very popular place to advertise.

The advantage of using the web to sell a car is that information can be uploaded instantly, and it is also much easier for buyers to search for vehicle via price, make, or model. The added bonus is that anyone with internet access can view such ads so an online advert tends to reach a wider audience. By selling privately, you're also likely to be able to get a higher price than through part exchange, or selling to a used car dealer.

But, whichever route you take to sell you car, be sure to hold out for the best possible deal; but at the same time, be realistic about what your car is worth. …

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The Science of Erections

An erection occurs when the penis fills with blood and gets hard. The penis has 2 main chambers that run along side the top of the penis shaft. This area, the corpora cavernosa, is made up of spongy tissue, veins, arteries, spaces, and smooth muscles that hold in-flowing blood.

Erections happen when more blood flows into the penis and less blood flows out. The erection process is perfectly normal and can happen at any time throughout the day.

Most healthy males get erections during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep (the time of sleep when dreams happen). Also, erections when waking up are a sign of good penis health.

Usually, erections happen during physical arousal or fantasizing, but other things can cause it to occur. Such causes include pressure on the genital area and pressure from the urinary bladder from the need to urinate.

For an erection to happen, some kind of stimulation makes the brain and penile nerves to get excited. They tell the smooth muscles of the corpora cavernosa to let blood in, and stop blood from flowing out. This has the effect of expanding the penis size.

As the penis gets bigger in length and girth, it is normal for it to rise at an angle. This angle is usually anywhere from parallel to the floor to pointing almost straight upward.

Sometimes men are stressed out and can not get an erection. This is just the body's way of dealing with stress (or the "fight-or-flight" response). Worrying about a small penis size or having an unattractive partner can make it impossible for a man to keep anection.

Other things that affect erections are: the amount of sleep a guy gets, how active he is, and in general, age causes changes in hormone levels, like testosterone.

Erection problems

If a man can not keep anection for 25% of the time, he may have erectile dysfunction, or ED. Treatments for erectile dysfunction can include penile injections, vacuum pumps, surgery, prosthetic devices, Viagra, hormone therapy, counseling, and natural penis exercises.

Some of these methods try to physically help a guy get an erection, while others improve his sex drive so he can perform better.

Methods like injections, prosthetic devices, and vacuum pumps do not require arousal, as they are based on an automatic response.

Other methods like pills and the natural exercises improve the blood flow into the penis, and make erections possible upon sexual arousal. Some pills work each time you take them, while others work for more long lasting benefits.

Regular erections are a natural part of good male sexual health. The ability to get erections decrees with age, but there are things men can do to improve themselves.

Erection problems can be ever cured with modern methods like surgery, counseling, pills, and even exercises. …

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The Science Behind Brain Wave Patterns

The human brain is made up of very many cells that are called neurons. These cells use electricity for purposes of communication among themselves. Because, they number billions, the combined effect of these neurons is sending signals at the same time produces very high amounts of electrical activities in the human brain.

This can only be detected using sensitive medical equipments, which measure the brain wave patterns over some certain areas of the scalp. 'Brain wave patterns' is a term that is most commonly used to refer to brain's electrical activities because of its wave-like and cyclic nature.

To get the concept of brain-wave patterns clearly, it is important to understand the nature of frequencies that these wave patterns produce and the mental sate that is associated with them. After the brainwaves were discovered, scientists later discovered that the brain's electrical activities could change depending on the activities that a person is undertaking.

For example, the brainwaves when a person is sleeping are quite different to those of a person who is fully awake. Over the past several years, highly sensitive equipments have made it almost possible to figure out which brainwaves are exactly present and what they signify on the person's state of mind and health.

The different brain wave patterns are associated with certain mental states.


These brain wave patterns have frequency of between 12 Hz and 38Hz. They are associated with them mental state of being broadly awake. This reflects to the mental state in which most of the people are in especially during the daytime when engaged in activities such as walking. Although the mental state of being broadly awake is in most cases uneventful, it is quite important.

It is important to note that in real life, most people lack the beta activity which may cause emotional or mental disorders such as insomnia or depression. The stimulation of beta activity may cause an improvement in concentration, attentiveness, energy levels and emotional stability.


These brain wave patterns have frequencies of between 8 and 12 Hz. The associated mental state is that of being relaxed and awake but not processing a lot of information. You are in the alpha sate state just before you sleep and immediately after waking up in the morning.

On closing your eyes, the brain begins producing more alpha waves automatically. Alpha is generally the goal of the meditators that are experienced. Because alpha is a seriously receptive and highly absorbent mental state, it can also be used for mental re-programming and effective self-hypnosis.


These brain wave patterns have frequency of between 3 Hz and 8Hz. It is associated with extreme relaxation and light sleep. It can be used self-programming and hypnosis by use of suggestions that are pre-recorded.


These brain wave patterns are the slowest, and they have frequency of between 0.2 and 3 Hz. They associated with deep and dreamless sleep. People Delta brain wave patterns have a body that is capable of healing itself and at …

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Presentation Crisis – How a Quote, Cartoon and Story Could Save Your Career

The Six Blind Men and the Elephant saved my job.

Props provide a powerful way of enhancing presentations. Verbal arguments are not enough to convince people of your message. Try using visuals such as charts or cartons, or physical props such as products or tools. Verbal props come in several forms: quotations from famous people, anecdotes, plays, poems or even questions.

The following is a true report of how I used my new-found communication skills and a combination of props to get me out of hot water with my company's auditors.

The auditors had submitted a report suggesting that I, as the chief supply manager, had exceeded my procurement approval authority. I strongly disagreed and tried explaining to them the difference between our use of approval authority and implementation authority within the computer system. They did not buy my explanation – that is, until I had a chance to meet with them.

The meeting seemed to take forever. Tension clouded the room, because the auditors intended to remain firm on their "observation" and everyone knew my position.

Finally, it was my turn. I started: "I offer the quote from George Bernard Shaw who said, 'In the right key you can say anything, in the wrong key, nothing.' So to help set the right key I ask you to look at this cartoon and parable that I am passing out. "

There were some eyebrows at this point, but no one expected to my strange approach – yet.

After everyone had a copy of the handout I continued:

"This cartoon shows the parable of the six blind men and the elephant. The six blind men went to see the elephant, but being blind and had to examine the elephant with their hands. For example, the first clutched the swaying trunk and said, 'The elephant must be a snake.' The next grabbed the tail and noted, 'The elephant is really like a rope.' Another fell against the side and exclaimed, 'Oh my, this elephant is like a wall.' Hugging the leg the next argued, 'The elephant is like a tree.' The fifth, while holding the tusk, stated, 'You are all wrong, I know it is like a spear.' And finally, the sixth felt the flapping ear and noted, 'This elephant is certainly like a fan.' "

The nervous laughter dissipated the tension and now the people were more relaxed. Then I explained how the computer system we were using was very big and complicated, like an elephant, and that we had poor documentation. Therefore, it was unreasonable for any visitor to fully understand the workings in a two-week period (this was the duration of the auditors' visit). The heads nodded in agreement at this point. Then I showed a flowchart of our approval process – emphasizing that the "approval" they were focusing on was only "an approval to print".

The bottom line is they understood my point, and the audit report was changed. It is important to know that the facts were …

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Burglar Security in College Dorms, on Vacation Or Rented Property – Portable Home Wireless Security

We all know, and the statistics back it up, that burglars do not care about whether you own or rent a property or whether you're on vacation. All burglars want is an easy mark and as much of your most portable, valuable property as they can get away with.

Unfortunately most landlords and campuses do not allow you to install your own security system because such systems normally require alterations to the property and at the very least, drilling holes.

This can mean that you are left without the protection that such a system could afford you and feeling vulnerable to attack.

Luckily there are home wireless security systems that can be installed quickly and easily and require absolutely no wiring whatever. Some of them are professional grade and have motion sensors that cover an impressive square footage. Once installed and activated the sensor monitors a certain area that you choose. If someone, such as an intruder, strains into the monitored area, a siren will be set off.

Some systems also include components like a door clip, which consist of two parts. One part is attached to the door and the other to the door frame. Once the device is initiated, an alarm will be set off when the door is opened.

Also, such alarm systems can be connected to the telephone line and automatically call a pre-determined number of your choosing when the alarm is triggered, just like with a standard home alarm system.

This is a huge benefit for tenants and students because they can simply take this home wireless security system from apartment to apartment as they move. These systems are so portable that some people even took them on vacation with them.

Alarms like these are ideal when you are in accommodation that you do not own. They satisfy basic security requirements and act as a deterrent to burglars – remember that most burglars just want an easy mark.

Many people find them extremely useful because they are portable, easy to use and generally a lot cheaper than other systems.

Always remember though that good security is the combination of technology with solid procedures and common sense. Portable home wireless security systems are not a replacement for having and using adequate locks on doors and windows, but they can add an extra layer of burglar security to provide a deterrent and provide peace of mind. …

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