Researchers Carry Out Largest Gene Sequencing Of Human Diseases To Date
According to reports released on May 23, 2013, researchers at the University of London, England, have carried out the largest sequencing study of human diseases to date. In their study, the scientists investigated the genetic basis of six autoimmune diseases. The exact cause of these diseases-autoimmune thyroid diseases, Celia disease, Cohn's disease, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes is unknown, but is believed to be a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The scientists, who published their findings in the journal Nature, estimate that the rare variants of risk genes account for only around 3 percent of the heritability of these conditions that can be explained by common variants. They say that the genetic risk of these diseases more likely involves a complex combination of hundreds of weak-effect variants each of which is common in people.
Bio engineers Create Sweat-proof Fabric
Bio engineers at the University of California, USA, said on May 21, 2013 that they had invented a waterproof fabric which can whisk away sweat using micro fluid technology. The new fabric works like the human skin. It turns excess sweat into droplets that drain away by themselves. In their research, they developed a new micro fluid platform using water-attracting (hydrophilic) threads that were stitched into a highly water-repellent fabric. They were able to create patterns of threads that suck droplets of water from one side of the fabric, propel them along the threads and eventually expel them from the other side.
It is not just that the threads conduct water through capillary action. The water-repellent properties of the surrounding fabric also help drive water down the channels. Unlike conventional fabrics, the water-pumping effect lasts working even when the water-conducting fibers are completely arranged, due to the pressure generated by the surface tension of droplets. The rest of the fabric stalls completely dry. By adjusting the pattern of water-conducting fibers and how they are stitched on each side of the fabric, the researchers can control where the sweat is collected and where it drains away on the outside.
Human Skin Cells Converted Into Embryonic Stem Cells
According to a report released on May 16, 2013, in a major medical breakthrough, scientists have for the first time converted human skin cells into embryonic stem cells. These newly made stem cells are capable of transforming into any other cell type in the human body. The cloned embryos, created by scientists at the Oregon National Primate Health Center, USA, can make new heart muscles and new bones attached brain tissue or any other type of cell in the body. The scientists used the same cloning technique that had created Dolly the sheep (the first cloned mammal) in 1996, overcoming technical problems that had frustrated them for more than a decade on how to create batches of the body's super cells from donated skin.
The new technique devised by the scientists is a variation of a commonly used method called …