Special Education in Ireland’s Secondary Schools

This article is an introduction to special education in Irish secondary schools. The past then years have witnessed a sea change in special education provision in Ireland. The Department of Education and Science has issued numerous directives and guidelines in relation to policy, provision, structure and supports. Since 1998 there have been ten pieces of legislation passed through the Dail that relate, one way or another to children and special education needs The National Council for Special Education (NCSE) has been established along with the Special Education Support Service (SESS). Both these organisations oversee and coordinate all special education initiatives nationwide. Ireland’s primary schools have pioneered these new directives. Special education provision at primary level is developing at a rapid pace and great strides are being made. The next horizon for improvement is secondary school.

Ireland’s secondary schools are driven by an exam-oriented curriculum. Subject area specialists teach all of the curricular content. The supports available to children with special needs are not extensive or as tested as those at primary level. In what follows we will look at the needs and entitlements of children entering secondary school who have identified special education needs and those who are entering and later discovered to have a special education need.

My child has been receiving extra help in primary school. What should I look for in a secondary school?

You should look for a school with a special education teacher in place on a full-time basis to support all children with special needs in the school. It is important to also be sure the school has a commitment to supporting and educating children with special needs. The school should have on its staff teachers who have had some training in how to differentiate their methodology and curriculum for children with special needs. There should be an accepting attitude on the part of all staff. Remember, your child is entitled to enter fully into the life of the school and avail of all it has to offer. How do you find out these things? Talk to the school principal and ask questions about the topics listed above. Remember, your child may be eligible for special consideration at the time of Junior Cert and Leaving Cert but this will have to be determined about a year before these exams will be taken.

What is s/he entitled to?

A child who has been receiving special education resources or support in primary school is eligible for continued support at secondary level so long as they continue to have a special education need. It is possible that a primary school child, after receiving several years of support, could no longer be deemed to have a special education need but this is the exception not the rule.

Your child will be entitled to the same general provision he or she received in primary school. Typically this takes the form of specialist teaching from a Learning Support or Special Education Resource teacher (both are now often being referred to …

IT Job Titles – What Do They Mean?

Although only a few decades old, the information technology or IT field is as broad and deep as industries that have been around for centuries. IT job categories, titles and specialties abound – so many that anyone investigating IT as a career is likely to be very, very confused. What’s the difference between a Network Engineer and a Network Support Analyst? Between a Web Developer, a Web Designer and a Web Technology Specialist? Just what does a Database Administrator do?

Although labels and responsibilities tend to vary from employer to employer, here are some common IT job titles and their descriptions. Consider these when looking for an IT career that best suits your interests, talents and temperament:

Database Administrator – A database is any collection of information that a company or organization keeps on file (e.g. customer names, addresses, inventory, etc.) The Database Administrator (DBA) is in charge of organizing, maintaining and updating this database and creating systems so that people authorized to view, add or remove information are able to do so as quickly and as easily as possible.

Internet Solutions Developer – This is a “catch-all” description for a person responsible for devising and executing Internet-based projects. The job usually involves working with programs that allow the public to view and interact with a company, organization or agency’s Website.

IT Project Program Manager – This is a managerial position requiring some years of experience in the IT field. The IT Project Program Manager is responsible for finding solutions to IT-related problems and then implementing those solutions, often with the help of a team.

Network Administrator – A “network” is any collection of computers that are linked either to each other or to a central server so that information can be created, shared and updated. The Network Administrator is generally responsible for making sure than an existing network runs smoothly and for adding or removing hardware (computers, printers, etc.) and software (programs, applications) from the system.

Network and Security Specialist – The Network and Internet Security Specialist is the person responsible for making sure people who use a computer network only get access to that information they are allowed to see, that information in the network database’s is protected and properly preserved, and that the network cannot be accessed (or “hacked”) by unauthorized individuals, wherever they may be.

Network Engineer – The network engineer is usually responsible for 1) Designing new computer networks, 2) Actually creating these networks, 3) Installing the computers and software that connect to the networks and, 4) Ensuring the network is able to grow and function as needed.

Network Support Analyst – A Network Support Analyst is much like a Network Administrator in that he/she is responsible for keeping an existing network operating as needed, but has fewer managerial responsibilities. The Network Support Analyst may also be responsible for monitoring how people actually use the network, identifying problem areas and then recommending and implementing solutions.

Software Developer/Engineer – “Software” is the set of instructions that …

Culture

In the present-day world there are few people who reject the phenomenon of globalization. The world is becoming more and more global in the sense that people of various cultures start to communicate more freely. Furthermore there are means to communicate thoughts and ideas across cultures such as television, the internet and so on. Even though it is so common to believe that knowledge, experience, science are capable of transcending all cultural differences, many people lessen the importance of those barriers and oftentimes disregard their existence.

All cultures have a set of beliefs that constitute the code of values and moral laws for that particular culture. In Asia for example people were exposed to certain social phenomena and consequently adopted certain beliefs that now determine their behavior as a separate culture. In other countries people share different beliefs and values due to a variety of factors. Religion is one of the most important factors that shape the society in terms of its cultural beliefs and traditions. Another important component is history that can tell us about the events of the past that might have had some influence on the further development of people in that particular country.

Cultural differences present a very interesting social phenomenon to study and understand. There are cultures that share very similar values and traditions and there are cultures that have very different beliefs. In the confines of this paper, I will focus my attention on the differences between Chinese and American cultures that in my opinion present very good examples for this study. There are myriad differences in all aspects of social activity and there are probably more differences than similarities in these two cultures.

To study a particular culture is virtually to study the people and their behavior from a sociological perspective. It is very important to construct a working definition of a culture. Culture is a set of social norms, traditions, beliefs and values shared by a large group of people . Individuals who belong to that group can be considered a culture. By the same token, they can be called a society because at this point there is not much difference between the two notions. A society is literally a group of people that share that particular set of beliefs, values and so on, whereas the word culture has slightly different connotations. A particular culture may as well be share by more than one nation whereas the word society is usually applicable to the nation that inhabits a particular country. There are slight differences between these two terms but most sociologists and anthropologists use them interchangeably.

In other words, a culture is a set of beliefs or a particular ideology that a society shares. It is very interesting to understand how people develop a culture because it seems to be a purely social phenomenon developed by a group of people and then spread among other individuals who somehow relate to that particular group.

As an example, communist countries have very different cultures. …

Continuing Education in a Competitive World

It's that time of year! School is starting again and students are returning to classes and universities all over the world. If you are not among the masses of returning students, what are you doing to continue to improve your own mind and skills?

We are living in the most competitive age the world has ever known. Each of us needs to constantly study and improve in order to boost our productivity and to keep up with changing trends and technology. Education is a shortcut to proficiency. Through it, you can bypass the mistakes of hundreds of generations, helping you to advance and excel. It can elevate your attitude as well as sharpen your skills.

Unfortunately, many feel that once their formal education is complete, they have no need to crack a book or learn another thing. What a waste.

It was said of Mary Kay Ash, founder of the multi-million dollar Mary Kay Cosmetics company, that she never got in a car without a cassette tape or CD to listen to, so that she could learn something while driving. You can do the same. Even if you choose to study a subject or develop a skill that has little to do with your career, you will find that your mind will quicken, creativity will flow, and you will feel better about yourself.

This month, as millions of students are returning to school, take a moment to consider what are you doing to improve your mind, your skills, and your attitude? If your answer is "nothing" or "I do not have time," I challenge you to do something today about your continuing education. Pick up a book, listen to an audio learning program, take a class. The important thing is not what you do, but that you do something. There is no doubt that education pays great dividends. Do not cheat your mind, or you will pay for it over and over again. …

Convergence of Science and Spirituality

Science and Spirituality are two major bodies of knowledge that try provide an understanding of reality. But they differ on "what?", "Why?" and "how?" with regard to knowledge acquired.

The first fundamental difference between Science and Spirituality is the object of study. Universal and timeless truths being its pursuit, Spirituality is concerned with the unchanging. But our body and the reality in which we live are physical which is characterized by change. The physical world being the focus of science, implies a fundamental difference in the object of study between Science and Spirituality. One studies what is constantly changing and the other what is unchanging.

The goals of spirituality and science are also different. Spirituality tries to make one's mind evolve and become spiritual, The study of the physical is secondary to this goal of helping the mind evolve. On the other hand, Science is simply concerned with objective study of the physical universe, offering to us the benefits arising out of such a study.

The third major difference is the means by which knowledge is acquainted. In the case of spirituality, intuition can be the sole way of knowledge acquisition. On the other hand, even though Scientists too use intuition to form a hypothesis, it is only after affirmation by sensory perception or by experimentation and inference that the knowledge proposition by the hypothesis is accepted.

With the above differences at present, can Science and Spirituality ever converge? It is possible if the philosophers of Science enhance the scope of science and can verify spiritual knowledge or if the spiritual gurus and practitioners can bring spiritual knowledge down to the level of details that science does and demonstrat empirically the truth of spiritual knowledge.

The above can be done without changing the nature of both. Scope of Science if enhanced to consider reality to extend beyond the physical and still scientific methods are followed as affirmation of hypotheses, the endeavor would remain objective. Science would have not to deviate from its methods and retain its essence. Spirituality on the other hand would just have to show that there is a spiritual significance to worldly activities. Thus spirituality can also maintain its essence.

The practitioners of both the disciples should endeavor to make the convergence possible because the appeal of timeless truths of Spirituality and the empirical proofs of science are both compelling and if they can meet, the ensuing knowledge would be both purposeful and practical. …

The Science of Getting Rich Seminar

Getting rich is also a science that has its own laws. Anyone who understands them and abides by them can become rich and take control of his life. All of us have heard of the Law of Attraction but how many of us actually practice it in daily lives? Wallace D. Wattles had written a book a century ago, which turned out to be a timeless classic. In his book, he had opined that getting rich is a predictable income if one understands and inculcates the principles that he has summarized in his book. This book has inspired many teachers and philosophers who also believe in doing things in a "certain way" to get money. Any person who knowingly or unknowingly does things in the said manner ends up getting rich. Bob Proctor, Rhonda Byrne, Michael Beckwith, and Jack Canfield came together to create a new type of training seminar called "The SGR seminar" modeled on Wattles' wealth creation philosophies.

The SGR seminar is a comprehensive training system that aims to explain principals of Wattles and encourages everyone to incorporate them in their daily lives. The seminar also includes audio, written, and live seminar formats to help individuals learn, employ and master these incredibly simple but important principles of wealth creation. What makes this seminar more striking is its in-built vehicle that enables participants to make money through an affiliate program. The seminar therefore not only empowers individuals with the knowledge to become rich but also provides means to extend their income. The seminar there is a unique amalgamation of original concepts by Wattles and expertise of masterminds like Bob Proctor, Jack Canfield and Michael Beckwith, and Rhonda Byrne.

The seminar has shaped the lives of many individuals so far and continues to inspire people from all walks of life. …

College Scholarships and Free Money to Pay Your Tuition, Room and Board, and Books!

Why should you have to pay for your education when so many states have a wonderful lottery system that pays for their residents education at a state school? Well, if you are considering a private college, then getting college scholarships and free money for school is going to be important. Also, if you live in a state that does not offer a free education, then you will need free money as well.

One source of free money is the pell grant, which the government awards to those that do not have the money to pay for college on their own. This is something you should apply for through your financial aid office and they may or may not award it to you, but it never hurts to try. This is money you never have to pay back to take advantage of it if you can.

Another source is through offline college scholarships and online scholarships. You can find many scholarships by asking your guidance counselor or talking to different people at the college you plan to attend. You can also find many of the college scholarships and free sources of money for school right online. This is a great place to search for money for school.

You should make sure you apply for each and every scholarship that you even come close to qualifying for. If it is free to submit an application, then do so and you could be rewarded with a scholarship that had a chance to get. This can keep you from having to pay back tens of thousands of dollars in student loans once you graduate and start working. …

Earn Your Degrees Online Fast

Looking to earn an online degree fast and have that successful career? Having a great career is the same as having a good life. Having the so called good life for the most part is everyone's fantasy! To enable that, we need to have an accredited degree from a well respect school – period. And, to help get those lucrative paying jobs we need the right training.

Working towards an online degree allows you to have an easier time as well as the convenience of being allowed to keep your job while you are at it. This in fact is the largest plus factor of all. You study your lessons only when you're ready to learn and not when you're forced too.

We can only say so much about the cost-effectiveness of online degrees. How is it cost effective? Not only will you save money on board and lodging (needed if you move away to school), but you save money on gas and school materials as well. No need to commute daily to "offline" university campuses or moving near the university you will enroll in.

How to evaluate the right online degrees quickly?

First , check out faculty's credentials and qualifications; find out if they are successful in the course that they will coach you in. It is not a problem to be cautious when it's your hard earned money and your valuable time that is the online.

Next, evaluate the online college or university providing the online program. Review the curriculum that they have. Due to the popularity of this education path, top traditional universities are now opening doors by offering online programs, so make sure to visit them online if they have the online degree program you want to take up.

A lot of unaccredited online schools proliferate right now that give out worthless degrees. To avoid this, online universities and colleges are now being monitored by the governing bodies to protect the students from these websites.

Earning degrees online is getting more and more popular as time goes by. Would not you want to join the successful ones and be the one to tell that fantastic story of landing that perfect job? It's up to you!

Want to know more facts on how to earn online courses fast to give you best future available? Take the next step to find out more. …

To Study or Not to Study: Campus Vs Online Universities

Oh, it seems you've stumbled onto another fascinating edition of To Study or Not to Study. This series is designed to inform the reader about the various study programs that exist and the pros and cons of each. The goal is to help people who struggle to pick a major or career – which can be a problem for many high school graduates and adults alike. Today we talk about the differences between on-campus classes vs. online classes.

There is no question that the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčtaking classes online appeals to almost everyone. Studying at home just seems simpler and much more comfortable. If that is the case though, why are the vast majority of students enrolled in classes on campus rather than pursuing their degrees online? Why is not everyone going to online classes if it's so much easier? Many people ask themselves that exact question, generally because they are skeptical about learning without being in an actual classroom. Some also wonder if an online degree holds the same weight with a degree earned on campus.

The simple answer is that online classes are not easier than campus classes. When an employer is looking at your resume, how you got your degree will not matter. What school you obtained it from is another matter, and can have an impact on an employer's impression of your skills. Online and campus classes have the same programs, they just use different methods to complete them. Let's take a structured look at the benefits of these two teaching methods.

Campus Summary

There are definitely more colleges offering campus classes than online, this is the classic and traditional method of learning. So naturally, more people are enrolled in these types of programs. A group of students work in class together and are taught by a professor. Although home school exists as well, most people graduate from elementary and high school using this method.

The major advantage to campus learning is actual human contact. Many people think that nothing can replace a face to face discourse and interaction with a teacher. A teacher who is present physically can help with any problems you might have with your education. If you do not understand a topic, you discuss it and have it explained by different teachers in different ways until you do. Because of the inherent structure of traditional academic programs, college campuses attract the best professors. Many professors are motivated by the possibility of tenure, which naturally ensures them steady jobs through their careers.

Campus learning also offers the priceless benefit of a network of students attending class with you. You get the opportunity to socialize and learn from them; friends made in this environment can help you if you're struggling with your class work, and even if you're feeling disheartened. Graduates of campus-based degree programs spend hours working with their classmates in group exercises, discussions, and role-playing sessions. Most students even go to college and university for the fraternities, sororities and sporting events. This …

Best Online Affiliate Program – Wealthy Affiliate University

Almost every and every time that you get on the internet you are faced with a new program that claims to have just what you need. So you may be asking yourself just what the best online affiliate program would be for you to get involved with. If you are unsure about this answer it may be because you are unsure about your knowledge so getting the training that you need is going to be a benefit for you. This is going to help you find the best online affiliate program that is available to you.

1. Getting Paid The Right Way.

It is important to make sure that you check into each affiliate program that you come across and do a little research before you go and get involved. The best online affiliate program is going to make sure that you are getting paid the right way. Of course you are going to be making graduates but you also want to know that you are working with a great company. When you have the Wealthy Affiliate giving you the proper instruction, you are going to be able to find the best internet affiliate marketing that are available.

2. Achieve Great Success.

It is anyone's hope and dream to achieve great success when they are working on the internet and that will be done when they are working with the best online affiliate program that they can find. But, when you are first starting out and tying to gain the knowledge that you need, the Wealthy Affiliate program can help you get there and find the best internet affiliate marketing that is going to be just right for you and your ability.

3. It's About You.

All of the training and learning about the best online affiliate program is for you to take and run with for great success. It is all about you and your desire to have better things out of life than working for someone else and making a measly salary. This is what you have been chasing and working for to find the best internet affiliate marketing that you can to succeed. …