Contrasting Plato and Aristotle

This is especially true among the over 30 thousand Protestant sects of Christianity that exist in America today. Only the Catholics have managed to reserve any amount of Aristotle, and that is through St. Louis. Thomas Aquinas.

There are many differences between these two giants of philosophy. I will first briefly summarize the differences in their approaches to metaphysics and epistemology, before moving on to my main topic: the contrast in their political philosophy.

Metaphysics and Epistemology

In the realm of metaphysics for example, we have Plato's shadows on the wall of the cave symbolizing the perceived world as an illusion created by the senses. This is in stark contrast to Aristotle's objective view of reality in his "A is A," symbolizing the idea that reality is what it is, as it is, rather than merely a shadowy representation of some truer reality.

In the science of epistemology, we have the Platonic journey out of the cave into the other world through Revelation, in contrast with Aristotle's science of logic as the tool of reason for acquiring knowledge of reality. Plato was a mystic and therefore set his metaphysical standard as the unknowable other-world, and revelation as his epistemological guide through the magical world of ideas in themselves – justice in itself, the good in itself, etc. This reality that we all live in, according to Plato, is nothing other than an illusion, a mere shadow of the actual reality that lies beyond our normal understanding.

This other-world is only know through intense contemplation that brings about revelation. I agree with those who speculate that the Platonic schools developed their own complete system of what we would call Yoga very early on. In book VII of the Republic, for example, Plato begins to describe a scientific method for discovering true being: "What is true unity? This is the way in which the study of the one has the power of drawing and converting the mind to the contemplation of true being. "

In contrast, Aristotle's approach is not mystical, not based on revelation, but rather based in human reason. As we shall see, these differences in metaphysics and epistemology have a unique effect on their different approaches towards political science.

Political Philosophy

Some of the most diverse differences come in the realm of political philosophy. The following short quote from Aristotle's Politics Book II: Ch. II serves to illustrate the contrast between these two thinkers:

"I am speaking of the promise of Socrates, 'that the greater the unity of the state the better.' Is it not obvious that a state may at length attain such a degree of unity as to be no longer a state? – since the nature of a state is to be plurality, and in tending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to be more than the state, and the individual than a family – so that we …

Bristol University Conducts Useful Studies For Any Divorce Lawyer

Any lawyer needs to research their chosen field to the greatest degree, if they are going to be a major player within the legal industry and offer informed legal advice to their clients; a criminal lawyer must study the ins and outs of the criminal mind through psychological research, a property lawyer must look in the statistics of town planning and the rise and fall of the population in their area just as a divorce lawyer must study the sociological theory behind family law. Luckily for them, The University of Bristol has focused much of their law department's attention on studying family law, with top professors and lecturers performing high quality research into several key areas and producing results that will be of great use for any dispute lawyer.

During the 1970's and 80's, former law commissioner Professor Stephen Cretney began to develop doctrinal and historical studies of family law in Bristol, studies which are still cited as key influences on other researchers today. It is because of such studies that social theorists can perform even more in-depth research into the behavioral patterns of families, particularly those whose marriages end in divorce. If a divorce lawyer is well acquainted with such studies, then it gives them a strong backing to argument a case in court, perhaps utilizing specialist knowledge that the opposition does not possess.

The University of Bristol's website gives more information on their particular areas of interest, with their family law researchers engaging in wide range of issues in family law. They are using their wide experience to work on projects in public child law and family property and are also focusing on family law practice in England an Wales, including comparative work and international issues in child law and the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. They have a vested interest in adoption and inter-country adoption, public law children including the impact of law on social work, kinship care and special guardianship and private child law, including child abduction and the enforcement of orders, all of which would be useful research to a divorce lawyer. Other issues that would be of interest to a divorce lawyer would include child support and child maintenance, instances of forced marriage and the cohabitation and the rights and responsibilities in families without marriage, stepfamilies and family property on divorce and separation; these are all covered by the Bristol University law department's research.

All of these studies will doubtless provide excellent figures, statistics and insights into the reasons behind why so many couples are choosing to get divorced in contemporary society, all of which will be essential to the progress of a divorce lawyer's knowledge on the subject. …

10 Things To Consider When Working in A Lab

Laboratories are essential to the set-up for basic and clinical research at military offices, industries and schools or colleges.

Basically, there are two types of labs, one is Basic Science and the other is Clinical research. Researchers use the Basic science lab to get the knowledge about any concept and principle of objects. On the other hand, we can diagnose the syndrome of any chronic disease in the Clinical Research lab. Working in different types of labs is not an easy task, you need to remember some prominent things to avoid any hazardous effects. For the sake of convenience, we have described here all the important points properly:

  1. Other types of Laboratories:

Some other types of working labs are mentioned below:

  • Film laboratory or darkroom
  • Clandestine (to test how illegal drugs are produced)
  • Computer labs
  • Crime lab for crime scene evidence
  • Language laboratory
  • Medical laboratory (involves handling of chemical compounds)
  • Public health laboratory
  1. Some Basic Points:
  • On the first day, introduce yourself to everyone in the lab.
  • Take advice from your teachers or supervisors if you are not aware of any experiments.
  • Make proper notes while doing experiments.
  • Do not annoy other co-workers unnecessarily.
  • Firstly, set up your desk or bench, then start to do your experiments.
  1. Lab Location:

Location of a lab is also the point which must be taken under consideration by the lab assistants. Limited space can distract your working so you must have enough space to place all the lab instruments properly.

  1. Techniques:

You can implement the techniques by using the concepts of physics, chemistry and math so you must have proper knowledge about the basic concepts to do any experiment.

  1. Safety Rules:

Safety features are necessary to follow while doing an experiment in the laboratory. Some points are mentioned below:

  • Do not eat, drink and smoke in the lab.
  • Do not wear open-toed shoes or shorts in the lab.
  • Write all the instructions step-by-step as suggested by the supervisor.
  1. Lab Meetings:

There is a need for proper space to do lab meetings or discussions.

  1. Lab Supervisor:

Supervisors must have the required educational qualification and vast experience. For all the experiments and operations, one needs to follow the instructions of Lab supervisors necessarily.

  1. Lab Equipment:

Place all the Educational lab equipment properly after using them. You must have working knowledge of all lab instruments.

  1. Basic survival Rules:
  • If something breaks while doing an experiments, tell your mentor immediately.
  • Clean up the instruments after completion of the experiment.
  • Don’t command others, ask politely if you require anything.
  1. Use of the Internet:

Office internet is only for official use. Do not spend too much time on Facebook, WhatsApp or twitter. IT workers monitor all the online activities of the employees.

Consider all the points mentioned above and do your work in the lab carefully.…

Money For College From Service in the Armed Forces

Service in the United States Armed Forces comes with many rewarding benefits. Not the least of which is money for college. Starting in 1944 and extending to present day, young men and women have enlisted in the military as a way to see their dreams of college become a reality.

The financial assistance offered by the military allows students to attend school full-time. This can happen in a number of ways. Students can choose to become a reservist or national guardsman, both of which can qualify for college assistance.

All branches of the military offer financial assistance programs to active duty service men and women. You are considered active duty when you sign up for a specified amount of service time; usually a 4 year tour of duty. But that is flexible as 2, 3 and even 6-year programs are also quite common.

The Montgomery GI Bill

The Bill allows students to receive money for higher education. The money can be used for any higher educational institution. This includes traditional colleges and universities, as well as voluntary colleges, online universities, college night programs and college weekend classes among others.

The amount of money students can receive is dependent upon on the term of enlistment. And with the help of special incentives, students can earn up to $ 73,836 for college; a number that continues to increase. The money can be used after your active duty is over or for part-time enrollment during service. Tuition assistance programs also exist to help soldiers who wish to complete some coursework while on active duty.


Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) is yet another option to consider. Hundreds of colleges across the country accept this program in conjunction with the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Students are allowed to attend ROTC classes and conduct training activities for two years with no obligation for service. Those who stay with the program must commit to service as an officer for at least three years after graduation. These students may also compete for full-tuition scholarships and annually stipends making it an incredibly flexible and popular program.

Repayment of College Loans

For students who accumulated student loan debt, there are certain college loan reimbursement programs available through the armed services. Eligible students may have completed only a few courses, or they may have fully graduated by the time they seek assistance.

Know Your Options

Every branch is different and it is up to you to explore what will work best for you. For more information on the complete list of armed forces incentives programs go online and visit,, or It's a great way to serve your country and get solid college financial aid all at once. …

Mind Control Techniques – The Art & Science Of Passive Coercion

There are many mind control techniques that are based on specific actions or language patterns. These are popular, because they are easy to try out. Examples of active coercion techniques are putting somebody in a hypnotic trance, using “yes bridges”, pattern interrupts, and so on. It is kind of “talking someone into something”.

However, there is another kind of mind control technique that can be just as effective when it comes to manipulating other people: passive coercion.

Passive coercion doesn’t require you actually doing something – rather, it is about setting up an environment through which your target will have to pass through – and the simple act of passing through this environment will influence his or her behavior.

This might sound rather strange, but it is actually a quite common experience. In fact – whenever you walk into a large shopping mall, you experience it first hand.

The art and science of passive coercion is a multi-billion dollar business. There isn’t a single modern shopping mall in the world that has not been designed with the help of passive coercion specialists. If you want to experience passive coercion in an even more sophisticated environment, visit a Las Vegas casino.

The reason why passive coercion is so effective is partly because it is invisible – we are not aware that this particular environment is very specifically designed to make us perform certain actions, think certain thoughts.

Shopping malls – as well as casinos – have surveillance cameras everywhere. Our usual understanding is that this is simply for security purposes – but these materials are carefully and meticulously analyzed by highly specialized psychologists whose aim is to better understand, and alter consumer behavior. They do this with the help of scent, sounds and light. They create an architecture that influences you to spend more time – and money – in the shopping mall. Even the flooring is designed to create the wished for effect – not just the colors, but also the softness or hardness of the floor has a subtle, but nonetheless very measurable effect on our behavior.

Of course, when you want to influence somebody to do something, you can not spend hundreds of thousands of dollar creating an coercive environment – but being aware of the fact that the environment can either increase or decrease the effectiveness of your persuasive attempts is worthwhile knowledge in and of itself. Because you can thus choose to meet in an environment that will boost your persuasive position.…

8 Steps To Starting That New Career

Fed Up, Bored, Or Stuck In A Rut?

Are you fed up, tired, or bored with your current job or career? Do you hate having to get up every morning to go to a job or career that you really do not like? You know there must be something better out there but can not seem to take the action necessary to make any changes. Instead, it's easy to keep the same old boring routine and just get used to it, as the months and years roll on by.

Did you know that we only have so much time in our working care and should not waste them being miserable every day with our job or career? Is not life far too short to be unfulfilled year after year?

Hopefully, you're not stuck in a rut and can not get out of it. If so, there is definitely hope for you as you learn and follow a few steps. For any changes to take place it's essential to take action every day in every way that you can. One thing that holds many back is that they do not want to be out of their comfort zones but probably need to be if there's a career change taking place.

Here are 8 steps for you about starting that new career or job and breaking out of that rut:

1. Attitude is very important. Mental preparation to change is needed to be committed to starting that new and best situation for you. See yourself as a valuable asset to anyone or company and worthy of consideration for whatever you're looking after.

Also, understand that changing careers will take some time. There is probably a learning curve that can take a few weeks or 6 months, or longer. Mentally preparing and starting out with a goal in focus, a plan, and a take action attitude are critical for success.

Feel confident and good about yourself and do things like helping others, sometimes volunteer, that make you feel good. Upgrading your "style" in dress, vehicle, or another way can make someone feel good about themselves. Now that you're looking and feeling good you're ready for:

2. Re-evaluate your strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. There are also many free Career Aptitude Tests online that anyone can take to help them decide on their best career choice. Take your time here and sleep on it. Then you're ready for the next step:

3. Education – If you're drastically changing careers then there would be a need to learn new things, take a class, get certified, or licensed. This will take some time but be well worth it. This training will look great on your resume as you move into your new career job. If you're using a resume, remake and update it or better yet have it professionally written up for you.

The resume is a tool to represent the person and open up doors of opportunity for them. Make sure that it draws a nice …

Online Education Is Successful By Earning Entire Degrees Online – A Study

A study reveals that online education has provided more flourishing and successful if all online programs offering institutions offer entitlement courses online than those that offer only a scattering of courses.

The report was based on finding out what made an online education program successful and to share the information with other institutions. The organization surveyed officials at different (21) colleges and universities that it determined to be successful in online education. Giving their response, these college officials foregrounded the need for such general elements as high-quality courses and consistent technology.

At this instance the important point observed was that 89 percent of the institutions created online degree programs ie entire degrees instead of just individual online courses. Online degree programs lead to success, because they tend to highlight a college's overall mission and translate into more institutional support for the faculty members and students working online.

At this level it's easier to measure the progress at a programmatic level; the programmatic approach also gets institutions thinking about student-support services. Of course, success is subjective, and what may be deemed successful for one institution may not work at another.

It was further discovered that some college officials believe online education has not lived up to their expectations. It is assumed that some colleges will learn from institutions that have succeeded online.

One of the institutions included in the report is the University of Florida, which enrolls more than 6,000 students in its online degree programs. It was reported that Florida decided to move forward with a strong online-education program because so many students were demanding it.

We see an interesting edge which Florida enjoys and that's Florida does not have enough seats for the students who want to be here, but still a lot of people are coming to get a University of Florida degree.

Florida University does not put a cap on enrollments in online courses. Full-time Florida professors teach the content, and part-time faculty members around the country field some of the questions from students.

Florida University has learned how to scale, and that what they do through an addition of faculty.

Another college the organization deemed successful in online education is Westwood College, a for-profit institution that has campuses all over the country, in addition to its online degree programs. The university knows that some institutions may have trouble making the transition to online education because higher education tends to be slow to change.

How will this concept be introduced to an industry that is very mush steeped in tradition is a major question? The answer may follow as one really has to relearn how these instructions are delivered.

In this context the truth is undeniable that nonprofit institutions could learn a lot from for profit on when it comes to teaching over the Internet.

The for-profit education industry is a much more nimble industry and is much more capable to change based on market demand and student need. And that is because the technology in these …

Building a Professional Career Online

The Internet has become one of the vital components of our daily lives. It is not hard to admit that most of our daily activities in life have been touched by the World Wide Web. With that, it is no surprise that a growing number of individuals are already exploring — some enjoying the benefits of having a professional career online, a lucrative and rewarding career right at the comfort of a coffee shop or in their home office in front of their computer.

Creating a professional career online is now possible, thanks to the convenience the internet provides. One can easily start a career in buying and selling stuff online or by simply creating a blog or engaging in freelance writing. There are many careers available online. Here are some of the following careers you can look into online.

Freelance writing


Ghost Writing



Website Design

Video Editing


Find a career that suits your set of skills best and then start creating your online portfolio to get clients and projects to start with. It is advisable to get a reliable internet access, one that runs at least 2MBPs or more to be able to attend to your daily activities on the internet. A lower speed may prove to be stressful when trying to meet and beat deadlines as well as when updating online templates and doing web design. Anything less also fails to meet requirement of clients and freelancing websites. Thus trusted home phone and internet bundles will help make your online freelancing career even more feasible.

Here are some of the tips you can follow to start and build a professional career online.

Create an online portfolio

Before finding clients and trying to land a job online, you need to create an online portfolio. It can be your or a blog under a free hosting platform like Weebly, Blogger, or WordPress to begin with. Include credentials, training, sample works, and a few details about yourself in this page. This can be a simple website with a few pages attached where potential clients can download and read samples of your work. A contact page is also essential.

Build your connections

You have most likely met a colleague who also happens to work online. You can include him as one of your references on your online portfolio. You can also add your past managers and supervisors as references. Be sure to inform your colleagues about them being one of your trusted references online. You can also include testimonials from past clients as well as their contact information to be able to provide your potential clients a reliable source of firsthand information about you and your performance as a professional online freelancer.

It is also important to keep in touch with your past clients from time to time to be aware of possible projects that may be available for you to do.

Update your social media accounts

Social media is also a big factor in building your …

High Paying Jobs With MBA Degrees – The Right Business Education

Gone are the days when entrepreneurs used to learn business on the job. This was the most prevalent way of getting business education, though informal. There are numerous successful entrepreneurs who succeed in business field without any formal business education.

One can learn business on the job as has been demonstrated by a large number of businessmen. That route takes longer and is worn with concerns.

With the complexities of modern business, business education has now been formalized. In order to do business, it is necessary that one should be conversant with so many business practices. Any business is now interdependent on other national and international factors. Formal business learning is now necessary in order to understand business environment as a whole.

Without a business degree from a renowned business school, it is difficult to undertake a business career.

Basis of business education are business and economic practices and theories. These consist of courses in fields like business accounting and bookkeeping, business strategy, business intelligence, business law, business writing, business consulting, financial management, organizational behavior, business marketing, business planning, international business, micro and macro economics etc.

Business education leads to important degrees like bachelors and masters (MBA). These two are the most important business degrees and are in high demand among companies and business establishments.

A university level business qualification leading to an MBA degree is the crown of a business course. MBA programs have been in high demand because of their clout in the market. While business concepts get clear at bachelor's level, master's education is a more specialized form of business education.

Generally an MBA program is spread over a two year period after bachelors. Most renamed MBA universities are in North America, UK and Australia. There are certain institutions like Indian Institutes of Management (IITs) in India which are equally reputed.

Some universities also have executive MBA programs which can be completed in one to two years. Executive Mabs are specific to working executives and managers who have been practicing in business field or at jobs for a number of years.

Executive MBA candidates have mostly bachelor level degrees and experience of a number of years. Essential qualifications for an executive MBA program are a combination of education and business experience. Executive MBA programs are generally employer supported and have a shorter duration than regular MBAs.
It is estimated that MBA saloons are generally higher by about 35 per cent than regular graduates. They hold prestigious jobs. They position their businesses strategically and help in the growth of companies and economies.

MBA courses can be obtained at a university campus, through distance learning MBA, MBA online and part time MBA. With the spread of internet, it has become easier to pursue an MBA degree. It is no longer necessary now to be a full time student at a campus, although this is most desirable.

Almost 43 per cent of MBA universities also have online MBA degree programs. About two thirds of MBA degrees get awarded through distance …

How to Get Scholarships for US Study

There are options for students to obtain financial aid while they are studying in the US. The students are also eligible to obtain the aid from the university in which they are studying. The most important factors which are to be taken into consideration are:

  1. The universities take into consideration the country from which you have arrived into US before deciding about your scholarship.
  2. The need of a student to cover his education, medical and insurance costs while he is in US.
  3. The educational level which a student has is also determinant in deciding his level of scholarship. For example, undergraduate students are eligible to receive higher scholarships from universities. Some specific scholarships are reserved for such students only.
  4. Students who had higher participation in co-curricular activities during their senior secondary schooling years have higher chances of getting a scholarship.
  5. Certain courses are also more eligible to being chosen for scholarships than others.
  6. The grades scored during senior secondary years are also determinant in deciding the level of scholarship a student is likely to obtain.

The students need to apply with the financial aid office of their university so that their process gets started for this scholarship. The authorities at this office can inform you about the complete details of applying for such financial assitance.

Concordia college awards scholarships to international students based on their need and academic excellence. The amount of such scholarship is approximately 25,000 dollars a year. Apart from that, the Columbia college also awards financial aid to students based on their academic excellence. The scholarships are awarded on a lump-sum basis or as a reduction in the tuition fees by 15-20%.

Apart from there are certain financial aid programs which are funded by prominent financial institutions. Examples of such scholarships are Joint Japan World Bank Graduate scholarships,AAUW international fellowships and Aga Khan Foundation international scholarship programme.

Lets discuss these scholarships in detail:

  • Joint Japan world bank graduate scholarships: This scholarships ensures that students are able to get scholarships if they have enrolled themselves in eight specific universities such as, University of Chicago,John Hopkins University, Columbia University, Cornell University and Harvard University etc.
  • AAUW international scholarships: This scholarships are awarded to those women in United States who don’t have a permanent residency or citizenship status in this country. These scholarships are given to all those women who are either pursuing a graduate or undergraduate degree. These scholarships are given to those women who have shown academic excellence. Although these scholarships are only given for a year, out of the total, almost five scholarships are renewed for a consecutive year also.
  • Aga Khan Foundation international scholarship: This scholarship is awarded to all those students who have no resources to financially assist their studies. The students are awarded a 50% loan and the rest of the amount is given through a grant. This scholarship prefers students who are pursing Masters and PhD degrees.

So, you can get US scholarships to study abroad which can ease up …