Inventors of Words – Neologisms in Science Fiction

Surely the most famous new word coated in science fiction is "robot", in the 1920 play by the Czech writer Karel Capek ': RUR ("Rossum's Universal Robots"). I do not know any Czech but I dare say "robot" comes from a root similar to the Russian rabotat , to work. Here, therefore, rather than a word that is completely invented from nothing. we have a new form of an existing word, expressing a new idea.

"Robot" is there before some way along the spectrum that extends from those neologisms which are merely convenient abbreviations (such as "mascon" for "concentratin of mass"), to really new words and ideas. (Of course a writer can also invent a new word to express an old idea, although this is usually rather pointless. I can not be bothered to look it up.)

Even if they are mostly mere abbreviations, new words can offer a new slant on previously expressed ideas.

Perhaps an example of this is "pauk", in Brian Aldiss' Hellliconia Spring . "Pauk" means "trance in which one can commune with the spirits of one's ancestors". Or in which one thinks one can …. for it is not clear, from the Helliconia trilogy as a whole, whether pauk is a genuine phenomenon of soul-contact or whether it is a mental illusion existing at a certain stage of society. The latter interpretation is suggested by the fact that the "spirits" of the departed apparently change in mood, from grumpy to sweet-tempered, as civilization advances.

A vaguer, but possibly more original term, is the Martian word "grok" in Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land . If you grok, you are tuning in to some ineffective wholeness; it is a mystical concept, perhaps too vague to be useful, but at least we can say in its favor, that no obvious equivalent previously in the English language.

Turning from the abstract to the concrete, a derivation of an existing word used for a new purpose is "drainer" in Robert Silverberg's A Time of Changes . A drainer is a member of a despised profession, a kind of secular confessor, to who one unburdens oneself verbally in private, in order to rid oneself of stress, in a culture which forbids the open use of the personal pronoun "I".

Jack Vance coined new words for the days of the week in Araminta Station , simply to avoid the jarring incongruity of using our familiar Friday, Saturday, etc, in the context of a far planet tens of thousands of years in the future, even though its residents are human, descended from us and similar to us culturally. He was right to do so. The words he chose are beautiful additions to the atmosphere of his tale.

An interesting example of an author who has carefully eschewed neologism is Gene Wolfe, who in an appendix to the first volume of his far-future epic The Book of the New Sun has stated:

In rendering this book – originally composed in a language that

Pros and Cons of Education Online

Getting an online education has become very popular these days, mainly because of it's advantages, which I will list in the following text. But, it's not all that "shiny" as it seems, there are also many disadvantages of online education.

Online studying, unlike traditional, can offer some tempting advantages. One of the most tempting are flexibility and low cost. Flexibility is important if you have a job (and you want to keep it), so you do not have to worry about fitting your classes around your job schedule.

Low cost, probably the largest advantage, is also important these days. Online education usually costs less than its traditional counterpart, so you can save money on tuition, if you pursue your degree through an online university.

Online education is ideal for students with physical handicaps (they would not have to travel to a traditional university), shy students, language challenged students,

Being able to set your own study time is one major advantage. If you are trying to get a promotion, or to make some money, this is a big plus for you.

People today usually run very busy lifestyles, there is very little time for them to devote to regular classes.

Now that I've listed the advantages, it's time for the bad side of online education, disadvantages.

One of the major disadvantages could probably be working on your own, with no interaction. You are not in a classroom and you are not able to hear questions asked by other students, and their discussion. It does not mean this is a problem for everyone, but it is a huge disadvantage. It's usually depending on the subject you're taking, for eg it is easier in history than in math, physics, chemistry because you will probably need someone to explain it better to you.

But with all the disadvantages, the number of people choosing online studying instead of the traditional one, is getting larger and larger.

You have to decide if lack of interaction is a problem for you, if you think it will affect your results, online education is probably not the best choice for you. But if you have a job, and it would be really hard for you to fit your regular classes with your job schedule, you should definitely choose online education. At the end, after listing some pros and cons of online education, it's all up to you, whether it suits you, or not. …

Super Easy Science Experiments – Tying Knots in Bones!

It is proven repeatedly that with super easy science experiments, you do not need to re-invent the wheel to have fun! In any way, tying knots in bones are far more fun and impressive than trying to re-invent the wheel!

In order to tie knots in bones, we need to understand the basics first by doing a simple experiment with an egg. You can use a raw egg, but it is less risky with regard to cleaning if you use a boiled egg.

Use a clear glass or jar and fill it up with enough vinegar to cover the egg completely and place the egg into the glass or jar filled with the vinegar. You will see the principal of the experiment starting to happen. Do you see the bubbles rising from the egg? Good, now leave the egg in the vinegar for at least 24 hours.

After the 24 hours have expired, take the egg out of the vinegar. What happened? The eggshell has become completely soft! Now repeat the same experiment, using the same vinegar, and put some chicken bones in the vinegar and wait 24 hours again.

Once you take out the egg of the vinegar, place it on a plate or in a bowl and leave it on the table for another 24 hours. At the end of the 24 hours, take the bone out of the vinegar and make a knot in it! Place it on a plate as well. What happened to the egg that you left on the table after the 24 hours? It became hard again!

Here is how it all works. The eggshell, just like the bone, contains calcium carbonate and that is the substance that makes the eggshell and the bone hard. Vinegar is an acid substance and once you combine or bring these two substances into contact carbon dioxide is released. That was the bubbles you were seeing. This chemical reaction will continue until all the carbon in the shell of the egg or in the bone is completely used up. This process takes about 24 hours to complete.

So how do the egg and the bone becomes hard again? The calcium that remained in the bone and eggshell absorbed the carbon dioxide in the air and this caused the bone and the shell to become hard again!

With the chicken bones hard again, show them off and see if people can clarify the mystery of the knotted bones!…

What are the Career Options Available After Microsoft PPM Training?

Once a person joins the course and goes through the whole course module, there will be a MS Project Server training session following that one undergoes which will prepares for taking the related examination. After that ones needs to undergo the examination for all the modules that have been taught and get the cut off mark needed to achieve Microsoft project certification. In order to achieve the certification one will be tested on level of skills and ability to efficiently using Microsoft software to handle project management at work place. Microsoft has come up with an innovative idea for this MS Project certification training because there are differently skilled people in the market. The training is divided into two main sections:

For beginners and seasoned users.

For beginners

This program targets that section of people who have minimum or no knowledge about project management. This is for the people who wants to pursue a career in project management and is absolutely new to the program. Here in, comprehensive training is given to everyone who joins the course. So if someone is new to project management, then he or she can enroll for this program. Most of the training institutions provide a basic Microsoft office training course and how to use its different applications to get the candidate familiar so that they have the basic knowledge of Microsoft suite before beginning the course.

Microsoft offers 3 days course training session which includes classroom lectures by trained experienced faculty members, providing associated materials and resources needed for the course which one may use for learning the subject and polish the skills to make exam exam ready. Followed by which one needs to sit for the tests and finish the examinations. Once the examination is completed and if a candidate scores the required cut off mark he or she will be given the Microsoft project certification which will help in building a bright career in this field.

Seasoned users

This particular program is for the ones who already own knowledge and experience in project management. People who are already working on project management and have command on it can take this program. In this program there will be no lectures or training available to the candidates. One can directly sit for the examination which will save a lot of time. Once taken the certification examination he or she will be assessed on the skill and if the person attains the needed cut off mark, Microsoft project certification will be given and this will take him or her to a higher position in an organization or to other organization if you are switching your current job.

According to a market survey, 81% of employers hire personnel who have certification in the particular area so that they can avoid hiring someone untrained for what they have to provide training to make the person ready for the project. Thinking how employers decide about people's skills on the basis of certification? Obviously, a person obtains the certification …

What Does Personal Achievement Mean to You?

There is something special about setting out on a personal journey to achieve something, going through all the ups and downs of any personal change and finally reaching the goal you or someone else set for you.

More than achievement for your team or your community there is a great sense of fulfilment about reaching a goal.

What does personal achievement mean to you?

1. Satisfaction

When you decide to do something, especially if it is something you’ve not done previously then you can feel a personal; sense of satisfaction when you achieve what you wanted to do. It might be something as simple as tidying some clutter or clearing out some old clothes no longer needed, or as complicated as planning a journey around the world.

2. Fulfilment

Similar to satisfaction but also this means that you can feel that you’ve completed part of an ongoing sense of change or a process. For example if you are discovering how to use a new camera you can feel a sense of fulfillment when you have taken a set of photographs and viewed them on your computer.

You know you have a lot more to learn but are fulfilled at completing the initial part of the process.

3. Completing a journey of change

Change may take a moment or go on for a long time, but when you have planned to do something over months or years then when you finally reach the destination there is a sense of great achievement. This could be something such as completing a University course or preparing for retirement and what you will do when you stop working. I can identify with both of these scenarios.

4. Overcoming objections

When you start to talk about changes you want of goals you hope to achieve it is a common experience that some people will tell you that it is impossible or you won’t be able to do that thing. Yet when you are determined to do something and continue in spite of objections there is a wonderful sense of completion when you finally do it.

5. Reward

There might be a valuable prize when you reach the goal, yet the actual value isn’t necessarily vital. For example a certificate to show you passed an exam is only a piece of paper yet the value of that reward is tremendous and gives a great sense of personal achievement. Something which shows you and others what you’ve been through on your journey of change can enhance you own sense of its value.…

Definition Of Education

There is no agreement among teachers, psychologists, politicians, and philosophers as to the purpose of education, nor is there any agreement as to what constituents education. If the purpose is to train good citizens, we are faced with the fact that concepts of good citizens differ in different countries. Can be an attempt done by the adult members of a human society to shape the development of the coming generation in accordance with its own ideals of life. This seems an unsatisfactory definition because:

a – It is a definition of training rather than education, and
b – The rising generation will live in the world of to-morrow.

Whatever definition we accept of education and of the purpose of education, it will be colored by our own philosophy of life. There appears to be a need for each one of us to define our own ideals and purposes. We may then hope for the good fortune to be able to realize them in part.

The attainment by each child of his maximum potential intellectual efficiency through the cultivation of good mental habits would result in an increased measure of human happiness.There is nothing new in this, for many will see in this faith purely a variation of a Greek conception of happiness. This belief, held by a teacher, wave rise to a personal problem. What means can be discovered that will result in each child's attaining the maximum possible intellectual efficiency. The problem has been tackled in a restricted sphere, mainly since a group of children whose mental powers are so limited that only by exercising them at their maximum efficiency can they hope to attain any real happiness.

We have to draw attention to a view that the overriding aim of the teacher is the matching of capacity by attainment.

Education has been passed down from above, and hitherto attempted chiefly through the medium of words. We believe that it should be built up from below, and that for the majority it should be chiefly through the medium of the concrete, the visual, and the everyday.

The first requirement for all who teach, or who aspire to teach, appears to be an appreciation of:

a – The difference between education and instruction,
b – The different levels of ability among children,
c – The different types of ability among children.

There is a fundamental distinction between education and instruction; between the concept of the development of talents inborn and individual, and the conveying to a person of a body of information. The transition in schools from "chiefly instruction to chiefly education has been delayed by large classes, but it is taking place.

Teaching, as we understand it, should generally be not lecturing or talking by the teacher, but largely

a – Preparation before the lesson period of exercises that afford opportunities for activity by the pupil;
b – The stimulation of interest, ie the creation of the right emotional environment (in which, or course, oral teaching has some place). …

Programming Languages ​​of Data Science

Data Science is a study of analyzing data in different aspects. In several cases of consideration of data analysis, there is a general abstract framework that describes a basic structure on how data has to be designed. For example, in the generation of music notes, there's a certain criteria like using only particular music notes for the relevant tunes. Describing data analysis is a difficult conundrum. Developing a framework involves considering the elements of the data and implementing it using programming language.

Why should we use programming languages ​​for data analysis?

As we know, data is used in many streams such as banks-to store customer details, hospitals-to store patient records and so on. For this, we require a place to store all the data. To make it function according to the requirements, we make use of programming language.

Let's take a look at the different programming languages ​​that we use for Data Science.

Programming Languages-

  1. Python-the most widely used, popular language at present, used for a vast number of applications and also in data science. The major reason of using python is because of its powerful tools and user-friendliness. It is an interpreted language as it produces the output simultaneously as we provide input to the interpreter. So it provides a base for all the data to be stored.
  2. R- it is also a programming language that is specifically designed to meet the needs of data miners. The most basic IDE (integrated development environment) used is RStudio. It is a user-friendly programming that consist of built-in functions to make it easier to handle.
  3. Java-is the widely used and popular language used for various applications. It has many IDEs just like the other languages. Java can be linked with the databases very easily and that is the main reason we use it for many purposes.

There are many other languages ​​such as c / c ++, scala, perl, julia that are used for data analysis.

As there is a lot of scope for a career in data science, the knowledge of these languages ​​play a major role in building your career. Programming is a must in all fields these days. Especially when you are dealing with data. But having knowledge only in programming do not yield you much. To consider this, let's take a look at the general question that might arise.

Who should get to the field of data science?

The answer is obvious. If you have the skills that meet the requirements of a data scientist, you are good to go! Let's consider the skills that are required.

  1. Statistical skills: the reason this is important is because data deals with quantitative analysis of data.
  2. Programming: as mentioned earlier, programming is required to design the framework for holding data.
  3. Ability to work with unstructured data- many of the business organizations recover data in unstructured form. The data scientist must be capable of dealing with such kind of data.

Scholarships for Single Moms Going Back to College Programs Give You Free Money for School

Are you a single mother or a single woman wanting to return to college? Financial aid for women going back to school is available. Corporations are offering this free money.

Fact: Scholarships for mom going back to school can help you get a degree that will not only help you earn more, but give you the ability to find the job of your choice.
Under the new stimulus plan, single mothers wanting to complete their college education now have the opportunity to get financial assistance for single mothers, which helps single mothers pay off their tuition. The stimulus package money even has some associated to scholarships and grants for mothers to return to college.

Fact: Scholarships for moms going back to school programs allows you to get more money that never has to be repaid.

Private corporations are looking to hand money as financial aid for single mothers. They provide up to $ 10,000 so that these women can continue and complete their education, with no strings attached. College scholarships for single moms programs have become intensely popular these last couple of years because of the amount of money that is being dispersed.

With this money, you can focus on doing well in classes and graduating, without having any burdens of repaying it later. This financial aid for women going back to school allows women to climb their career ladder without getting bogged down in repaying a temporary loan.

With the new stimulus plan, the responsibility of employing single mothers who return to college and graduate is shouldered by these corporations. This is why they are ready to offer you this free money.
Fact: It is a lot easier to get money for school than women think and a scholarship for single mom and do the job in getting your education paid for.

Once you complete your education, you will have a job waiting for you. Eligible single women can apply for this financial assistance for single mothers without having any worries about paying anything back.
Be sure to do your homework and search the internet and inquire at your school's financial aid department. Get information about the grants and scholarships available to single women and single mothers.

There is so much financial aid available for women going back to school, that lack of finances is not an excuse to not go. …

Career Development – Things You Should Know about Yourself

"Know thyself." The Greeks inscribed that message over the entryway to the temple of Apollo at Delphi, which they imagined to be the center of the earth. It's still a good idea.

If you know yourself well, you've got a better chance of understanding what opportunities to seize and which to avoid. If you know yourself well, you're more likely to understand others and get along with them better. In other words, if you know yourself, you're more likely to succeed.

Here are three sets of questions to help you "know yourself" and determine which career options and activities are the best fit for you. I've divided them into three groups: questions to help you figure out your strengths; questions to help you learn about how you do things; and questions to help you decide if management is for you.

Questions to Figure Out Your Strengths

You'll do best in your life and career if you do more of the things you're good at. Here's how to determine the best ones.

What am I good at? Everybody does some things really well. They're often things that we find easy, but other people have to work at.

What do I love to do? Some things just seem like fun. They give us energy.

What things are on both lists? This is a cruel question. The activities that you want to build your life and work around are the ones that you do well and that give you energy.

The best life strategy I know of is to spend time and effort developing skills and abilities based on your strengths. At the same time, make your weaknesses inferior.

You can make a weakness negligible by choosing jobs and projects where it does not matter. You can make a weakness irrelevant by "outsourcing it" or getting someone else to handle it or help you with it. You can make a weakness negligible by learning to do things you're not good at "well enough."

Questions to Help You Learn about How You Do Things

The following questions will help you discover how you do things. Understand how you do things and you can identify ways to get more done more effectively. Understand how you do things and you can watch for potential conflicts when others do things differently.

I'll use my friend, Bill as an example. Let's start with a question about pace.

Is your natural pace fast or slow? When it comes to making decisions or dealing with situations, some people are quick and direct. Others are slower and more deliberate.

Bill is one of those people who can make good, fast decisions. His boss, however, is a slow and methodical thinker. Bill's rapid fire style made the boss uncomfortable, even if Bill turned out to be right.

So Bill learned to hold off on sharing his quick decisions. When he got an assignment, he would tell the boss: "Thanks. I'll get back to you in a couple of days with the plan." …

Fourth Grade Science Projects Made Fun and Easy

Fourth grade science projects should be fun and interesting to hold the child's attention. Fourth graders can carry out the experiment pretty much on their own, but they will likely need help coming up with an idea and then beginning the project, and also with presenting their findings at the end. In fourth grade, science projects generally involve answering a question, solving a problem or testing a hypothesis.

There are countless ideas for fourth grade science projects, and one interesting one is to see if seeds will grow if they are watered with a liquid other than water. All you need for this experiment is some seeds, a few small pots, some potting soil and a few different liquids like milk, juice and vinegar. Simply plant a few seeds in each pot and water it with whichever liquid you have not chosen, and then repeat this with the other pots. Be sure to label each pot so you know which liquid to water it with. Then, watch for the seeds to sprout over the next few days and record your findings.

You could also do a similar experiment and see if plants will grow if they are watered with soapy water, such as leftover dish water or bath water.

Another 4th grade science project that might be fun to try is to see if cockroaches have a preference for direction. To do this, you simply need to catch some cockroaches and find a spot outdoors to set them down and record which direction they head in. Is there a common trend or not? …