The Religion of Science: Fact or Faith

I have attempted to harvest from some of the greatest minds insight into the nature of God, human existence, and our ability to transcend what is commonly referred to as self-preservation – the “most powerful” human instinct. Further, I make the argument that debunks the myth that humans are mortal beings – simply living and ultimately dying.

If things were as simple as traditional biology tells us, then what accounts for a spouse or a parent willing to give his (her) life in exchange for his beloved? Perhaps love and the divine human spirit provide us with the innate spiritual supremacy to rise above our “greatest human instinct,” and propel a person to outrival our “captive,” namely, the primitive drive to survive. It goes without saying, we’re back to where we began. The question that remains to be answered centers on whether human beings are eternal beings?

I did some research with respect to the probability of a person being alive at this very moment – living on the planet we call earth. We’ll get back to this in a moment.

Bear in mind that our universe sprang into existence as “singularity” around 13.7 billion years ago.

Though I have been flirting with the possibility of eternal life (in some shape or form), and, something or Someone who was the grand designer of the cosmos, I haven’t used the word “religion” – correct?

Comparing apples-to-apples, I will use the word “faith” when contrasting faith as a higher power vs. faith in the science underlying the Big Bang Theory.

We know that our universe was born almost 14 billion years ago, however, ask a scientist ‘how the Big Bang occurred.’ You will likely get a response that goes something like this, ’14 billion years ago the universe burst into being from an unknown cosmic trigger.” Hmm – an unknown cosmic trigger… what’s an unknown cosmic trigger? Beats me, but surely it takes some faith to believe in one!

Logic tells me that faith comes in two competing forms, faith in the form of a scientific theory and faith in something or Someone, i.e. higher power. I tend to look for compelling evidence to support a given faith.

The supposition that some unknown cosmic trigger led to me sitting in front of my computer typing would require me to have faith in the existence of a cosmic trigger. So, what’s a reasonable alternative to an unknown cosmic trigger? Probability and statistics, of course! I will illustrate my point without getting too deep into the mathematical discipline.

I noted above that I did some research with respect to the probability of a person being alive today – living on the planet we call earth. First and foremost, no matter what faith you embrace, you are a miracle – at least in the eyes of probability and statistics.

Throughout the violent and turbulent early moments of the Big Bang to the formation of earth 4.5 billion years ago, you “survived” the hundreds of millions …

A Beginners Guide To Bioethanol Fuel

Bioethanol Fuels and Cars

Henry Ford thought that ethanol was the "fuel of the future", and designed the original Model T to run on ethanol. The Ford Model T ran on ethanol until the year 1908, and ethanol was widely used in cars in the USA up until prohibition in 1920. The octane level of regular unleaded fuel is 95 ron (research octane number), whereas the octane rating of raw ethanol is 113.

What cars can use bioethanol?

Ethanol is already used in high performance sports cars due to its' high octane rating. Currently Fuel-Flex Vehicles (FFV's) produced by Ford, Saab and Volvo have engines designed to run on fuel mixes of up to 85% bioethanol and 15% petrol. Regular car engines can handle lower mixes of ethanol of up to 20%.

Why use bioethanol as a fuel for cars?

In the UK, bioethanol has the benefit of reduced taxation. Government incentives to offset the proposed higher production costs of bioethanol mean that a petrol at 85% ethanol would be around 2p a liter cheaper than conventional petrol. Adding bioethanol to petrol in cars also reduces the carbon monoxide emissions and improves the fuel octane.

Does bioethanol benefit the economy?

The production of bioethanol creates domestic jobs, both in the farming and fuel production industries. The energy independence of a country can be greatly improved by producing bioethanol. Reliance on foreign oil is one reason for high fuel prices at the petrol stations and this trend can be reversed by domestically producing bioethanol as a fuel source.

Is bioethanol less efficient than petrol?

All cars have an efficiency rating, measured in miles per gallon. This efficiency rating is related to the type of fuel used in the car. It has been suggested that ethanol has around a third less energy per unit volume than petrol so it is assumed that this will result in a drop in the miles per gallon for cars. Bioethanol has a much higher octane rating than petrol, however, and cars designed to run on ethanol can have more efficient engines by raising the compression ratio. This means that bioethanol is not going to raise prices or reduce fuel economy when introduced as an alternative fuel for cars.

Is bioethanol unsustainable?

Large amounts of land are required to produce crops which are turned into bioethanol, does this mean that using bioethanol as a fuel for cars is unsustainable? A report published by Science , in 2009, suggests that it may be more environmentally sustainable to use biofuels, such as bioethanol, to produce electricity in power stations; This electricity can then be used to power electric cars. As crops grown for biofuels are not going to be consumed, however, it is possible to use GM crops and year-round growing to produce the crops that will be used for bioethanol therefore increasing its sustainability as a fuel for cars.

In the search for a renewable source of energy to support a fuel dependent society, bioethanol shows a lot …

Education in Theory and Perspective

What is the meaning of education?

Webster defines education as the process of educating or teaching. Educate is further defined as “to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of…” Thus, from these definitions, we might assume that the purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of students.

It is also defined in Oxford that education is the knowledge, abilities, and the development of character and mental powers that are resulted from intellectual, moral, and physical trainings. So, it can be said that someone who already got education will have additional knowledge, abilities and change in character and mental power.

While in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, it is stated that:

Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means ‘to draw out’, facilitating realization of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuro-science, sociology and anthropology.

From the quotation above, it is assumed that education does not merely transfer knowledge or skill, but more specifically it trains people to have positive judgment and well-developed wisdom, better characters and mental powers. Through education, someone will be able to search through their natural talent and self-potential, empower them and finally will result in gaining their self-esteem and better life.

The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universität Berlin 1994 “began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770”. Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Education was the natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on.

The education of an individual human begins since he was born and continues throughout his life. Even, some people believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents’ playing music or reading to the baby in the womb to hope it will influence the child’s development. For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal. Family members may have a profound educational effect – often more profound than they realize – though family teaching may function very informally.

Education: the purpose, function and in practice

Theorists have made a distinction between the purpose of education and the functions of education. A purpose is the fundamental goal of the process-an end to be achieved, while Functions are other outcomes that may occur as a natural result of the process- byproducts or consequences of schooling. To elaborate these terms, it can be seen in reality that some …

Prerequisites For A Career In Nursing

If you're considering a career as a nurse, there are a number of prerequisites for nursing that will make it easier to set accepted into a nursing school program. These will help lay the groundwork for your training as you take your first steps towards a career in nursing.

Although there is a severe shortage of nurseries across the United States as an aging population puts increasing demand on healthcare, hospitals and health clinics are becoming more particular about nursing qualifications.

One of the most important prerequisites for nursing training is to begin early. You should start thinking about your nursing career in high school. There are many high school courses that can be very beneficial such as health studies, biology, chemistry and other social sciences.

Nurses need to be good at interacting and communicating with patients, doctors, surgeons and hospital administrators. A good command of both written and spoken English is essential because you will have to write up reports, read prescriptions, administrator medication, talk to patients and their families and communicate with doctors, doctors and surgeons.

There is a lot of competition to get into the best nursing programs. At the very minimum you will require high school GPA. Good grades are essential because getting into the best nursing schools can be tough. Some nursing schools may require you to undertake an exam examination. These include the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS) exam which covers basic reading, math, English and science.

The Nurse Entrance Test (NETS) exam tests potential applicants in reading, math, stress, social interaction, testing abilities and learning skills. Other entrance examinations include the Pre-Admission Exam for RN students (PAX-RN) and the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) exam.

Graduate and undergraduate nursing school requirements are similar to any other college requirements. Major prerequisites for nursing programs to graduate level include completing your application on time and submitting it before the deadline date.

All nursing students are required to undertake and pass the National Council Licensing Examination (NCLXE) before taking the state-specific licensing examinations. NCLXE is a nationally recognized examination recognized across the United States but many individual state licensing exams are recognized only in the state where you studied.

Once you meet the minimum state requirements for licensing, you can start applying for nursing jobs.

But the most important attributes to be a great nurse are a good attitude, a friendly personality, the ability to study hard and learning how to handle stress – all the attributes that make a great nurse. To us, they are the major prerequisites for nursing. …

Etymology- How Words Change Over Time

Etymology is the study of the origins of words.

As languages develop the meaning of words can change over time. This causes confusion and misunderstanding when communicating with other people.

In a world were you make a living at communicating, advertising or marketing, it is not only important to have clarity in your message, it is also important to think of your target market and understand how they understand words and messages.

On the positive side that words change meaning over time, it has been noted that languages that stay alive, adapt and grow over time.

An example would be the word nice. Nice used to be an insult and meant foolish or stupid in the 13th century and it went through many changes right through to the 18th century with meanings like wanton, extravagant, elegant, strange, modest, thin, and shy or coy. Now it means a good & pleasing or thoughtful & kind.

Silly meant blessed or happy in the 11th century and went through pious, innocent, harmless, pitiable and feeble minded before ending up as foolish or stupid.

Pretty started as crafty this changed to clever or skillfully made, then to fine and ended up as beautiful.

Some other changes are:

Word ______ Original Meaning

Awful________ Deserving of awe

Bead _________Prayer

Brave_________ Cowardice (as in bravado)

Girl__________ Young person of either sex

Neck_________ Parcel of land (as in neck of the woods)

Nuisance______ Injury, harm

Sophisticated___Corrupted

There are several reasons for words change meaning. One is the influence of other languages and cultures. Throughout history, many nations through conquering or intermixing with one another, introduced their own languages into the mix. Another reason is the predominate use of slang words. We get so used to using them that many times we forget that we even are.

So when it comes to defining words, there is the standard dictonary, which by the way can show multiple meanings for one word, and there is the definition of the word in slang.

As well, slang words spread faster and are used more often than before, making them common place in many societies.

Due to the advancement of science and technology, new words are also being created at an amazing rate. Keeping up with some of the new words and your usage of them will help in your efforts understand and to become a master communicator.

Once every ten years, the Merriam- Webster dictionary is updated. Their 11th edition for 2003 included some 10,000 new words along with 100,000 new meanings to words already existing and some 225,00 revised definitions.

Some of the slang words that have made it in the dictionary are;

Headbanger- a hard rock musician and a fan

Dead presidents- Paper currency

Prairie Gophering – people who peer above their cubicles at work.

McJob- Low paying and dead-end work.

Comb-over- an attempt to cover a bald spot

You can learn about more words in an etymology dictionary.

We can use this as another reminder, especially when it is important …

The Difference Between Astrology and Numerology Explained

The two metaphysical sciences, astrology and numerology are immensely popular today. Man’s failures and his insecurities drive him to seek solace, and both Astrology and Numerology have their sets of firm believers, and can be used as tools to teach you about yourself.

Astrology is a science based on the stars and planets. Astrological chart of a person is a set of complicated calculation derived from the planetary positions of the sun, stars and moon, as they were at the time of a person’s birth. Hence date of birth of a person along with the time of his birth is immensely important in astrology.

Numerology is the science of numbers and names. It is believed that each person vibrates with the energy of a certain numerological number. The numerological number is calculated on the basis of a person’s date of birth and on the basis of a person’s name. It is believed that each number from 0 to 9 vibrates differently and is responsible for a person’s success or failure.

If a numerological reading of a person’s name suggests that it is gathering negative vibrations somehow, then changing a letter or a vowel in the name is sometimes the answer. All vibrations attract energies, both positive and negative. If positive energies are attracted, then the person will be happy and satisfied. If a person’s numerological number attracts negative vibrations then misfortune, disappointments and bad luck can be the consequence.

Both Astrology and Numerology readings can provide solutions and insight to the seeker who seeks them with a true heart. So go ahead, explore. May your journey be full of joy and peace!…

Contents of Education

An Islamic Perspective towards Philosophy of Education

Introduction

Philosophy is the study of realities, pursuit of wisdom, and commentary on general principles of life. It is concerned with a search of eternal truth, both conceptual as well as practical. It has five areas of search – Epistemology, Metaphysics, Aesthetics, Ethics and History. The instrument used by philosophy to unearth realities or to discover truth is logic, both inductive as well deductive. Educational philosophy is a branch of general philosophy, it gains strength from epistemology. It formulates the aims and objectives or contents of education that, in turn, influence the whole learning environment, society, and future generations.

Philosophy of education is based on general principles of psychology, sociology, politics, economics, history, science, and religion. Education is dualistic phenomenon; it is static as well as dynamic. The major portion is dynamic or provisional and adjusts with the change and growth in knowledge, social structure, and civilization, while the minor but vital portion is static or eternal. We proposed that the contents of education are eternal while the application and explanation of these contents, a major portion, is dynamic. We assumed multi-disciplinary approach towards contents of education. The analysis accommodates the needs of individuals, society, and time and encompasses the cultural, social, and vocational aims of education.

Education may be formal as well as informal. The formal education is given in schools or colleges or universities, on the other hand informal education is obtained and absorbed from society and environment. Education, formal & informal, is developed and internalized in one’s personality through reflection and experience. It means all of us are learners during our lifetime. However, we are going to analyze the philosophy (aims & objectives) of formal education. Moreover, education has three levels – primary, secondary, and higher. Primary education deals with infants of 3 to 11 years old, secondary education covers teenagers of 12 to 18 years, and higher education shapes young learners of above 18 years. A distinctive approach is required for each level of education.

The contents of education vary from community to community. A secular society would have a different approach towards contents as compare to some ideological society. Moreover, the explanation or implementation of contents would be different in different societies. Our analysis is ideological and dominantly based on Islamic view towards education.

Terminology

The term “education” has been derived from the Latin words Educare, Educatum, or Educere. Educatum and educare mean to train and to nourish, while educere mean to lead out. The former implies that education is something external; to be imposed or put in from outside, it means the external environment plays a decisive role in learning process. The latter indicate growth from within; it means internal potentialities of an individual are decisive in learning process, the external environment has secondary role in educational process. Naturalists / Psychologists gave more importance to internal dispositions of learning process while the social philosophers put major stress on external demands of educational process. We assumed a mixed …

Pointers and Advice on How to Learn Science Terminology and Tips on Revision Techniques

The Problem: Imagine if you had spent a whole year (or if you were lucky, a month or two) writing lots and lots of notes and these notes were the key to your understanding of certain topics and were the foundation of your revision. What if you were to lose them? What if you were to somehow damage them? There is a chance that you may read them back later and realize that they do not make a lot of sense / you are no longer clear on what the meaning is. Then what?

The Contemplation: I would suggest you do what I did; have your notes based upon universal science glossary that is easy to understand. This way you could then write less notes (saving time) and use the glossary to start from the basic meanings and scientific terminology and progress though to the harder to understand. At the very least it would be good to use in conjunction with your existing notes to cover all the gray areas you have. I would go one step further and bring these ideas into the modern age and have them focused upon one knowledgeable, easy to understand, constant, informative and extremely helpful source.

I also found that when I was studying science there was a lot to take in and there are many multiple meanings within terms and words that mean exactly the same thing. These meanings, terms and words just come from different places and times. Who knows why they could not have just used one way or one description or kept the same words and terms instead of changing them? Learning all the new terms is hard enough, right? …

Sex, Science and Survival

The idea that reality evolves through an infinite dance of fundamental atomic geometric shapes with an ethical purpose, became the basis of science in 3rd Century BC Greece. Plato's Academy called it the Science for ethical ends. The Epicurean University called it the Science of universal love. The movement of the moon, echoing the atomic dance of life was seen to influence the female cycle. The ethical purpose, in this case, was held to explain a mothers love and compassion for children, giving sex a potential infinite ethical value.

Greek philosophers argued that religious beliefs were not part of the atomic purpose and others maintained that traditional cultural virtues contributed to the evolution of humanity. A crucible debate at that time, was that healthy human development required a scientific understanding of infinity. This understanding was associated with a sexually orientated joy of life associated with the eternal acoustic dance creating a desire to love and protect children.

Greek science was invented to save civilization from the extrusion process, recorded within the fossil record. In particular, the term 'savior' applied to teachers of the Epicurean school. The Roman Government considered this idea as a threat to the stability of their Empire. However, it succumbed to Christian ideology during the 5th Century AD. By that time science was an instrument controlled by religious dogma for the purpose of military contract rather that reasoning about the infinite ethical purpose of the geometric atomic dance of life.

The mathematical understanding of the dance of life under religious control during the Dark Ages was about ensuring that a particular creed developed science to protect itself from military contract. Sexual selection centred upon the physical attributes of the warrior class, echoing the primitive survival mindset of previous life on earth, most of which had become extinct. Infinite mathematical conjecture became completely banished within all scientific reasoning as a treasonable heresy. Giordano Bruno in 1600 was burnt alive by the Christian church in Rome for teaching about it at Oxford University.

The resulting supreme law of science became one of carcinogenic growth and development towards certain extinction and therefore can not be considered as ethical. Einstein's genius, who initially agreed with that unethical proposition, provided the solution to this problem. His "we can not solve problems by using the same kind of thinking that we used when we created them" that that science needed to alter its governing logic.

If humanity is to prosper it must confront modern science's obsession with the certain extinction of humanity. That will involve a re-understanding of our sexual mindset. The infinite geometric logic involved in the dance of life generates a powder keg of emotional thoughts and feelings beyond present scientific comprehension. With all the best intentions, religious concepts of infinity are of little pragmatic help. This is demonstrated by the current exposure of organized child molestation within the Christian Church and the deteriorating use of sex associated with acts of religious Islamic terrorism. The complexity and dynamics of sexual reality …

How to Become an Orthodontist

Images of picture-perfect smiles complete with straight, even, white teeth are often as a result of the work of an orthodontist. Regular dentist visits to fill cavities, check for healthy gums and professionally clean teeth provide us with great oral care, but, in some cases additional care is necessary. Orthodontists specialize in treating irregularities and abnormalities of the jaw and teeth which may necessitate the use of braces, headgear or specialty pieces to align the teeth and achieve facial balance. Becoming one of these specialized dentists is a process that involves a few critical steps and the passion to provide excellence in oral care and hygiene for patients.

One of the first steps to becoming an orthodontist involves acquiring a 4-year Baccalaureate degree. This four year degree should ideally be in pre-medicine or nursing as the courses that are usually required to obtain said degrees contain a variety of science courses as well as generic requirements that will help boost GPA as well as prepare you for admissions into a dentistry program. Be sure to research your Dental school of choice before determining your Bachelor's degree. Courses in Biology, Physics, Psychology, English and other language courses are recommended to include in your degree program. Depending on the program you are looking to enter after your Bachelor's degree, community service or volunteer hours are also a good thing to include during your academic career as these will set your application apart from others. Taking other supplementary courses to boost your GPA is also recommended during your program.

Once you have completed your Bachelor's degree, you will need to study for and take a Dental Aptitude Test. Similar to the MCAT's for medical students the DAT is an entrance requirement for any Dental school you apply for that measures your skills and knowledge in dentistry. Be sure to research schools before applying as each school will have specific admissions requirements and deadlines to adhere to in order to gain acceptance. Check your local library or university library for a copy of a previous DAT exam to get an idea of ​​what will be on the examination and what to study for. Bookstores often carry tests as well that you can purchase, located in the reference sections. Flashcards may also help you study for this all important test.

The next step in becoming an orthodontist is the successful completion of a 4-year graduate degree in Dental School. Once you have completed this program, you will have obtained a Doctor in Dental Medicine or Dental Surgery allowing you to specialize in multiple post-graduate programs including Orthodontics. (Some schools require a separate Masters Degree in a specialization in order to be considered for a specialty study in Orthodontics.) This final program in Orthodontic Specialties differs from school to school and may contain various research and teaching components as well as surgical residencies to complete the program. After you have completed this final specialty program generally lasting 2-3 years, you will need to apply for design …