Natural Treatment for Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction

The Sphincter of Oddi is a central gate to many liver, gallbladder and pancreas problems. Many scientists believe that the Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) is a culprit of the pancreas diseases and it is the common source of chronic pain after gallbladder removal.

Around the common bile duct, pancreatic duct and the duodenum wall there is a muscle valve called the Sphincter of Oddi. The Sphincter of Oddi, named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian anatomist who discovered this structure in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi controls moving of the bile from the liver, and gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas into the duodenum.

Normally, when semi digestive food moves from the stomach into the duodenum sphincter of Oddi opens. Large amount of the gallbladder bile and alkaline pancreatic juice is released to digest this food. When no food in the duodenum, sphincter of Oddi is closed so the bile from the liver is collected in the gallbladder.

Regulation of this complicated work is under control of nervous system and special blood messengers – digestive hormones. Stress, fasting, “harsh” liver cleansing, gallbladder removal, bad eating habits, alcohol, some medications, and recreation drugs badly influence in proper regulation and work of the sphincter of Oddi.

Spasm or blockage of this muscle valve may cause pancreatic juice goes backward, thereby increasing the pressure inside the pancreatic duct. Digestive enzymes shut inside the pancreas, begin to digest their own pancreas, initiate inflammation, pain, and finally the death of pancreatic tissue. Thus, chronic pancreatitis is developed.

Tumor, gallbladder stone, or scaring can make an anatomical blockage of the sphincter of Oddi. It happens relatively rare. However, more often can be functional, temporal spasms of the sphincter of Oddi without any abnormality in the tests. The common reason for sphincter to be spasmodic is irritation of it by the “aggressive” bile and pancreatic juice.

What could make bile and pancreatic juice “aggressive”, corroded, and irritated? Let’s explain that.

The liver’s most important functions are producing and releasing bile and removing the toxins from our body by dividing them into water-soluble and fat-soluble wastes.

Water-soluble wastes move into the blood and the kidneys eliminate them from the body.

Bile serves to eliminate a variety of the toxic, fat-soluble wastes substances from the body. These substances include cholesterol, bile pigments, toxic chemicals, drugs, heavy metals, etc.

Hepatitis, fatty liver, Candida-yeast overgrowth, parasites, congestion, inflammation, infection of the gallbladder, high body’s acidity, poor eating habits, alcohol can cause the bile to be thick and acidic, therefore make it difficult for it to move through the ducts.

When the bile and pancreatic juice are getting acidic, they also become very “aggressive”, irritated, and corroded for the ducts, sphincter of Oddi, and small intestine causing jerky movement; “wrong way traffic” – bile/pancreatic juice refluxes in the stomach, ulcers and even cancers.

No surprise, it causes loss of appetite, nausea, gas, bloating, heartburn, attacks of pain, especially after “bad” foods or bad food combination. Pain can be last for 30 …

Image Rankings and US News and World Report

The current college ranking systems provide an easy way for prospective students to see how one institution ranks against another. This can make for a simple way to see which colleges will provide the best education. At least that is what the ranking system is supposed to do, in recent years though there has been some criticism regarding the methodologies used to rank colleges.

What are Admissions Rankings

Before we talk about what is good about the current system and what is not, it is important to understand how colleges are currently ranked in the United States. It is also important to know that there is more than one ranking system available.

The methodology that most of us are familiar with is the ratings that are given by the US News. This system has been around since 1983, and each year the ratings for colleges change. The US News ranks scores each institution with a score between 1 and 100, with 100 being the best, and they separate the schools into 4 tiers. The best schools are listed as tier 1.

The ratings are based on collected data that take into account the following factors:

• Peer Assessment – Reputation of the school based on a survey of presidents, provosts, and deans from other institutions

• Retention – The graduation rate over a 6-year period, and the retention rate of first year students

• Student Selectivity – A combination of data based on: test scores of students, the percentage of top percentile students admitted, and the student acceptance rate as a whole.

• Faculty Resources – Data that includes the student-faculty ratio, the average salary of faculty members, and the education level of the faculty

• Financial Resources – Average tuition rates per-student

• Graduation Rate Performance – The difference between what the expected rate of graduation was and what the actual graduation rate turned out to be

• Alumni Giving Rate – The amount of money received from donations by alumni

The first four elements on the list account for 80% of the total score. Peer assessment alone makes 25% of the rating, and that is where the criticism of the US News ranking system comes in.

The Good and the Bad

In recent years there has been some criticism of the current rating system. It has been said that with the weighting given to peer assessment, student selectivity, and faculty resources that it becomes easy to pick which schools will come out on top. The largest schools and the richest schools will win out over the smaller colleges every time, regardless of the actual education that a student can expect to receive from the institution.

Looking at the historical data, these statements are true to a certain degree. Schools like Harvard, Yale, and Princeton always end up on top of the list. Some suggest that, to get a true measure of school performance, the ratings should give a larger weighting to factors related to graduation rates, salaries after …