Experiments That Changed History

Prior to 1600 the science industry was small, mainly supporting the
activities of University "experimenters" and philosophers. All that
was to change with a series of discoveries that would pave the way for
the industrial revolution.

In the early 1650's OTTO VON GUERICKE, a German experimental
philosopher, was making observations by experimenting with a pump on
water placed in a barrel, but found that when the water was drawn off
the air permeated the wood. – He then took a globe of copper fitted
with pump and stopcock, and discovered that he could pump out air as
well as water. Thus he became the inventor of the air-pump (1650).

He illustrated his discovery before the emperor Ferdinand III at
Regensburg in 1654, by the experiment of the "Magdeburg hemispheres."
Taking two hollow hemispheres of copper, twenty inches in diameter,
the edges of which fitted nicely together, he exhausted the air from
between them by means of his pump, and it is recorded that thirty
horses, fifteen back to back, were unable to pull them asunder until
the air was readmitted.

By this experiment Von Guericke showed the world that seemingly
insubstantial gases could exert astonishing forces – forces that
could probably be harnessed. Effectively, Von Guericke had discovered
the vacuum pump, and also demonstrated the force of atmospheric
pressure using his pump. Without that experiment's results, the whole
industrial revolution, and the science industry that was built to
support it, would have gone in a different direction.

In 1657, upon learning of the invention of the air pump by Otto von
Guericke, Robert Boyle followed up the work and showed that a vacuum
(Egypt at least a near vacuum) could exist. In New Experiments
Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air, and Its Effects
(1660), Boyle described some 43 experiments with the air pump. Among
His many conclusions, he noted that air has weight, exerts pressure,
and is elastic; that sound can not travel through a vacuum; and that
air is essential for combustion and for respiration by living
creatures. And in observing that the volume of a gas varies inversely
with pressure, he arrived at his famous law of pneumatics,
posthumously named Boyle's law.

All of this work can be seen as a direct consequence of the Von
Guericke Magdeburg hemisphere experiment and for the rest of the
seventeenth century, people worked to find a way to make use of the
forces that Von Guericke and Boyle had described.

There were also "side" issues from the sphere experiments, in that the
results led Boyle and other chemists to look directly at the nature of
gases and, indirectly, to the formulation of atomic theory. It could
be said that the transition from Alchemy to Chemistry came from Boyle,
via the Magdeberg experiments, ushering in the era of chemistry as a

The industrial revolution led to a rapid expansion in the actual
industry of science, as ever more machines were built and
experimenters made ever more discoveries, which led to …

Importance of Human Rights Education

Education makes people easy to lead, but difficult to drive;
easy to govern, but impossible of enslave. … Henry Peter

World is so beautiful. Human beings is the great and strongest animal in the world. With the help of thing capacity he became a powerful person in the world. Every one has right to live and right to speak.

Now we are living in the modern world. Human beings developed in all the fields. But there is a lot of difference among the countries in the world. Co-operation and co-regulation are necessary among these countries. It is necessary and important to educate every one in the world. It is very important to know what is Human Rights.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was drafted by the United Nations Commission on Human Rightsaired by, then first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. The UDHR was adopted by the 56 member nations of the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948. December 10th is now celebrated around the world as International Human Rights Day.There are now 188 member states in United Nations

Everyone has the right to education … Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

The concept underpinning human rights education is that education should not only aim at forming trained, professional workers, but also at contributing to the development of individuals who possess the skills to interact in a society. Human rights education, human rights into education aim at providing pupils and students with the abilities to accompany and produce societal changes. Education is seen as a way to empower people, improve their quality of life and increase their capacity to participate in the decision-making processes leading to social, cultural and economic policies.

Human rights education can not be reduced to the simple introduction of human rights content in already overburdened curriculum. It brings about a substantial reform of education, which touches upon curriculum in service and pre-service training, textbooks, methodology, classroom management, and the organization of the education system at all levels.

Human rights education implies the learning and practice of human rights. A holistic approach to human rights education means that human rights are implemented at all levels of the education system, and that they are taught through both content transmission and experiences.

Education for human rights helps people feel the importance of human rights, internalize human rights values ​​and integrate them into the way they live. Education for human rights also gives people a sense of responsibility for respecting and defending human rights and empowers them, through learned skills, to take appropriate action.

Why Human Rights Education?

1. Produces changes in values ​​and attitudes

2. Produces changes in behavior

3. Produces empowerment for social justice

4. Develops approaches of solidity across issues and …