The History of Hydroponic Plant Cultivation

Hydroponic growing is a system of cultivating plants that uses mineral rich water rather than soil. Put simply the plant roots are placed in a water solution; this helps to reduce the costs of water, allows for control over the nutrients that are fed to the plants and also produces high, stable yields and makes it easier to control pests and diseases. It has been used in bio medicine, within food production and even by NASA. But what are the origins of hydroponic science?

The history of hydroponic science can be traced back nearly four hundred years. In the archives of the British library is the earliest known publication on the subject of growing plants without using soil. Published in 1627, Sylva Sylvarum was authored by Sir Francis Bacon and sparked interest in the technique. The next scientist to take the baton was John Woodward who experimented with growing spearmint in distilled and impure water; he found that plants in impure water greater better than those in distilled.

Two hundred years later German botanists developed a technique called solution culture. This was a type of cultivation that used no soil and instead used a mineral solution. Solution culture is still used as a hydroponic technique today. Hydroponics first received its name after the work of Professor William Frederick Gericke, who in 1929 began experimenting with the technique for agricultural production. After first choosing aquaculture, a term already being used for the cultivation of water borne plants he determined upon hydroponics, an analogous term referring to geoponics, the science of cultivating earth.

Gericke however attempted to keep the discovery to himself, leading to him leaving the University of California. Two of his associates, Dennis Hoagland and Daniel Arnon then began their own research. The result was a book on the hydroponic subject although both Hoagland and Arnon did not believe that the technique was a more productive way to produce plants, overlooking the fact that botanists have greater control over oxygen, water and nutrients in a hydroponic environment. The pair did however develop a number of nutrient formulas that are still used today.

The first practical usage and success of hydroponics was in the 1930s where the science was used to grow vegetables on Wake Island, a rocky South Pacific atoll that had no soil. From this point onwards the science has been regularly advanced, even being used by NASA to a study how plants could be grown using LED light in any possible missions to Mars. …

Advantages of Online Schools Over Campus-Based Education

Schooling is one of the most difficult parts of one's life. Education is one of the essentials and today it has become the priority for everyone at all levels. Going to conventional schools is sometimes a dream for many as they do not have access to any nearby good school which provides the best educational facilities in the particular subject desired by the students. In such cases, online schools are the best opportunity to learn and obtain a degree.

Online schools, unlike the campus schools, provide a wide range of subjects and a completely flexible environment consistent according to the timings of the students. These schools allow students to attend classes anywhere and anytime which suits them. There are no restrictions for participation in a certain manner, or just hearing the teacher. The lectures are complete and coherent which need no further explanations as teachers realize the fact about students that they do not have access to them in person, so it needs to be put-up in the most logical way. Students gain ample time to learn and understand all the concepts. The interactions and discussions forums with fellow students and teachers result in the best learning environment for students.

With increasing technological advances, researches and varying concepts related to science and the arts, it is difficult to keep the curriculum up-to-date in a conventional schooling process. Online schools have this opportunity to keep their curriculum updated as they do not follow any specific set of books and syllabuses which is fixed once and for all. The updated concepts help in improving students' views about different aspects of the subjects and their minor details. This helps in enhancing thinking process along with increasing student's knowledge to let them concentrate on critical and analytical concepts.

Online schools provide a bright opportunity to the students and professionals to gain the best up-to-date knowledge in accordance with the modern tactics and techniques helping them to understand the changing requirements of the industry that they are associated with. The interactive study method helps students improve their mental abilities and knowledge in the relevant industries, thus, making it easier for them to improve their position financially and rankly at the job place.

Students who are working at part-time jobs can actually get some more time to rest and remain fresh to learn and understand the subject of study in a better way as it is not able to manage the campus education and continuing job. Online schools also provide students with the opportunity to customize their timetables according to the times which suits them the best. This allows the students to study in a relaxed way since enabling them to learn and understand in the best way and gain a high level job with the best knowledge at hand. Briefly, while pursuing online education, students do not feel any burdens of studies or managing times, as everything is transported out as per their own requirements and desires. …

Mark Dantonio, Michigan State University (MSU) Spartans Head Football Coach, Biography

Mark Dantonio has been the head football coach for the Michigan State University (MSU) Spartans since November 27, 2006 when he was hired to oversee the football program of the East Lansing, Michigan based college that has in excess of 45,000 students. During his three seasons with the Spartans Dantonio has a combined record of 22-17 after suffering his first losing season at Michigan State in 2009 with a record of 6-7.

Born in March of 1956 Coach Dantonio had a number of coaching assignments before signing on with the Michigan State program. The earliest days of the coaching career of Mark Dantonio were as a general assistant at Ohio University and then Purdue University in 1980 and 1981. Mark spent a year as the defensive coordinator at Butler Community College in El Dorado, Kansas in 1982 before returning to a general assistant capacity with Ohio State University for the 1983 and 1984 seasons.

The Ohio State coaching position under then head Buckeyes coach Earl Bruce proved to be a pivotal point in the coaching career of Mark Dantonio as the high profile football program boosted the prominence of his coaching resume and gained him more national exposure. After 1984 Mark parlayed his Ohio State experience into positions with the University of Akron and Youngstown State before joining the University of Kansas as the defensive backs coach from 1991-1994.

After living in Lawrence, Kansas while working for the University of Kansas football program Mark spent five years with Michigan State from 1995 to 2000. Upon leaving the Spartans in 2000 the next move was back to Columbus, Ohio to serve as the defensive coordinator of the Buckeyes from 2001-2003 where he was part of the 2002 national championship team.

Finally on December 23, 2003 the University of Cincinnati wave Mark Dantonio his first head coaching job. In three seasons with the University of Cincinnati Bearcats Coach Dantonio posted an 18-17 record which was good enough to garner the attention of the Michigan State University Spartans who in November of 2006 made their former assistant, Mark Dantonio, the 24th head football coach of the MSU Spartans.

Although Michigan State under Coach Dantonio has yet to win a bowl game fans of the well-traveled coach are optimistic that his 0-3 postseason bowl record at MSU will ever pick up a victory. The Big Ten Conference that Michigan State plays in is a very competitive conference and fans of the MSU program expect their football team to be near the top of the league every season. Supporters of Dantonio hope that he will be given more time to prove himself before Michigan State observers bringing in their 25th head coach in the history of the program. …

Are You an Assertive Communicator?

Having good personal communication skills is important because it will help you a lot in your life and career. By being a good communicator, you will be able to get your points across to other people in a mutually beneficial way. But how can we be a good communicator? What should we do to communicate better with others?

One thing I believe you should do is being an assertive communicator. By being an assertive communicator, you build mutual understanding with your partner. You do not try to manipulate him by being aggressive. Neither do you try to avoid conflicts by being passive. By being assertive, you are open about what you are thinking and feeling. But more importantly, being assertive means you try to understand first before asking to be understood. You try to see from the other person's point of view. Then, after understanding her point of view, you try to find a win-win solution that works for both of you.

Of course, being assertive is not easy. You must postpone speaking out what you want. You must take the time to listen first. But at the end, being assertive will give you the most long-term benefits. While being manipulative can only give you short-term benefits, being assertive can help you build trust with your partner that will be beneficial for years into the future.

To be an assertive communicator, first you should pay attention to how you communicate daily. Increase your awareness of your communication. Are you being manipulative through your words? Are you trying to avoid conflicts by hiding your true feeling? Are you trying to make your points without understanding the other party first? If you have these in your personal communication, then chance is you are not being assertive. But this awareness will help you change. After being aware of the situation, you can take the necessary actions to change it.

What you need to do is listening to what the other person is saying. Not just hearing what she says, but really listen to it. Try to understand her situation and why her points are important for her.

Next, try to find common ground between both of you. Since you already understand her position, it should be easy for you to find points of similarities between both of you. This common ground is your foundation to find a win-win solution that works. You can then propose the solution to her and see how she replies. Keep trying to find win-win solution and you will be a good communicator. …

Be a Gates Millennium Scholar and Get Your Degree Without Spending a Cent

The United States populace is composed of various minorities, like African-Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Eskimos to name a few. And when it comes to income-generating opportunities, most members of the minorities do not do much. And this fact easily translates as to why many minority members do not have a college degree. College education and college tuition costs are quite expensive.

This fact is the basis why the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has focused much of their philanthropic activities, particularly on providing college scholarships, college tuition grants, and other academic assistance programs to the minorities. The Gates Millennium Scholars is reserved for minority students who have shown academic potential and leadership skills that will help them become future leaders of their respective industries.

There are various minority students who have obtained their respective degrees through the Gates Millennium Scholars initiative. It is the aim of the program to lessen the number of students who have failed to finish their college education and realize their dreams. Among those aided by the program include outstanding students Nichole Ann McReeves, a science major at the University of Kansas, Guadalupe Juarez of Florida International University, and Rachel DeMarce of Carroll College.

Aside from the minority students of the United States, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation also aims to develop the agricultural sector of the African continent by providing academic scholarships and college tuition grants to African women who have shown academic excellence and potential leadership qualities Africa will need for its future development.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is just one of the private institutions that has been a big help in keeping alive the college dreams of the minority students of the United States. If you are one of the minority and you feel you have the potential for leadership and have flair for academic performances, do not hesitate to apply and become a Gates scholar. …

The 4 Stages of the Counseling Process: What Every Youth Counselor Should Know

There is a natural progression that takes place within the context of the helping relationship. This process enables you and the person you are working with to build a relationship, assess the situation, set goals and come up with a plan to bring about your desired results. This progression is known as the counseling process. There are four stages of the counseling process. They are: developing a relationship, making an informed assessment, establishing mutually agreed upon goals and objectives and developing an implementation plan.

Phase 1. Developing A Relationship

In order to develop positive helping relationships with youth, you’ve got to be able to connect with them. This can only happen when youth are made to feel like you genuinely care about their well-being and that you understand where they are coming from. It’s about behaving in a way that demonstrates the core conditions of genuineness, respect and empathy.

To develop solid relationships with youth, you need to create a safe environment where young people will feel comfortable enough to open up to you and talk to you about anything that is on their minds. You also need to help youth see that despite their circumstances they have strengths. In short, you should start things off from a strengths-based perspective.

Questions to Consider When Trying to

Develop A Relationship

· In what ways can you build better relationships with the youth in your program?

· If there are youth who are not actively engaged, what can you do differently to engage them?

· If a youth is resistant, what steps can you take to reduce resistance?

· What worked in the past with resistant youth?

· How do you know when you’ve built a solid relationship with a youth? Could you use these indicators to strengthen your relationships with other youth?

Phase 2. Making An Informed Assessment

An informed assessment happens when both you and the youth gather information in order to figure out what’s “really” going on so that you can assess what needs to happen next in order to change the situation for the better or build up the youth’s coping skills to better deal with a problematic situation. The first step in making an assessment is to find out if change is necessary, and if it is what needs to happen for change to take place. If you have determined that change is necessary, then the next step is to figure out what needs to change. Is it a behavior? An attitude? A situation?

A good assessment can provide an opportunity for a young person to see how his/her behavior or attitude might be contributing to an undesirable or unhealthy situation. Assessment is an ongoing process. You need to regularly check in with your youth to see how things are going. Reassessments enable you to ensure that you and the youth are on the right track.

How do you gather information in order to make an informed assessment? You can gather information in a number of ways: …

Get a Doctorate Degree From Well Established Universities Online

A doctorate is considered the highest academic degree. With the help of an doctor degree from a certified online university, you could enjoy the option of completing your routine responsibilities and doing your regular job. There are numerous such programs you can opt for. Online education facilitates you with an opportunity to study various levels like doctorate degree, doctorate online, online bachelor's programs, and online master's degree.

The online doctorate mainly primarily involves 4 to 6 years of extra study after Master's Degree. In order to get it you need to work hard and should do the research work carefully. If you are pursuing an online doctorate then then it is very important that you make a schedule of attending the classes in your free time. The online education program is the best method of learning your degree.

These programs combine serious work and there is no issue of class attendance. You can attend online classes by sitting anywhere across the world with the help of internet. It does not matter whether you are on vacations or at work; you can always continue your studies from a certified online university. Nowadays, more students give preference to the online programs as compared to the campus based programs because of the various resources and faculty members they provide.

You get to mix with other online doctorate students. While pursuing online doctorate degree programs you do not have to follow the usual time table. There are chances that the online doctoral programs may be based on particular set of courses, independent study, and research. According to a survey it has been found that majority of the students are adult and they favor flexibility in the online classes. The online doctoral programs offer you the assistance with the help of online chats with the tutors and fellow students, virtual lectures, coursework, and emails.

You will be working on your own and will be making use of the research resources in order to finish the course conditions. There are some online universities which inspires you to complete online doctoral programs. There are two forms of online doctoral programs – research and professional. Some online universities also offer honorary doctorates, which are not particularly academic. With the help of online doctor degrees you also have a chance of learning research and professional degrees.

If you have made your mind to pursue doctorate degree program then make sure that the online university is accredited by a relevant authority. …

Make Sure You Have All the Information You Need Before You Make a Career Change

Choosing to make a career change in the current economy is not a decision to make lightly. Of course wherever the decision for a career change is one you made for yourself or one that has been made for you makes all the difference in the world.

If you have suddenly found yourself without a job, you will need to consider where you want to go from here. Be realistic. And be honest. Determine what your good qualities are as well as what your bad qualities are. And think about what you may really want to do. If it is possible it is always good to consider something you have an interest in or are passionate about as a career. Having the luxury of enjoying your job is worth a great deal if you have to work for a living.

Are you able to transfer something you care about to a career change? For instance if you really have a need to take care of people, you may be thinking about a nursing career. There is certainly a lot of responsibility in nursing, but if you are able to deal with it and you are able to make decisions quickly, this could be the perfect job for you. There is no doubt that you can consider this a long term career, there is always going to be a need for nurses. And you can pretty much write your own ticket. You can go anywhere in the country and you can choose to specialize and make more money than regular nursing.

If you are considering nursing as a career change, unless you are already in the medical field, you will need more education. The best place to begin is with your local college, university or training center. They can advise you what you need to be able to get the certification you need to begin your new career as a nurse. Of course you will need to be sure that the training program you choose is recognized by the hospital or medical center you are choosing as a potential employer. Some of the programs work in conjunction with hospitals and medical centers, they provide the practical experience needed and often they will provide employment after you get your certification.

If you do not have a career change in mind already, you may decide that starting a business of your own is the best course for you. Of course, you will want to consider a business of your own very carefully. You will need to determine if the business is something that is needed. If it is a proven business, is it still a necessary business, or is it on the down swing? The computer industry has been very lucrative but there have been so many changes to the manufacturing of computers, that many of the suppliers and employees are no longer needed. You need to be realistic when you are thinking about your career change, do not start a business that …