Orthodontic Education – Functional Treatment Is The Missing Link In Dentistry

Most dentists agree that the curriculum in the majority of dental schools does not adequately cover the subjects of orthopedics and orthodontics. I believe that the knowledge and understanding of orthopedics (functional orthodontics) is the missing link in the education of general dentists.


Ideally, children with developing malocclusions should be treated with functional appliances in order to guide their growth and to prevent more serious problems later on. Functional orthodontics has, as its foundation, balanced function of all components of the stomatognathic system. Properly developed arches, patent airways, the mandible properly related to the maxilla, and correct vertical dimension all contribute to balanced function of the head, neck and facial muscles. Children treated with the functional philosophy can be done non-surgically and without the extraction of permanent teeth in most cases.


Since the roof of the mouth is the floor of the nose, a properly developed maxillary arch encourages nasal breathing and can assist with improving such symptoms as nasal allergies, asthma, and sinus problems. One of the most common causes of constriction of the maxillary arch is an airway obstruction, which causes mouth breathing. Another cause of constriction would be enlarged tonsils, which prevent the tongue from posturing on the roof of the mouth upon swallowing. It is the ability of the tongue to position itself on the palate that allows for proper lateral development of the alveolar processes, which helps to develop the maxillary arch to its normal size.


This narrowing of the maxillary arch, in turn, causes the mandible to be held in a retruded position. This retrusion of the mandible is implicated in jaw joint disorders as well as snoring and sleep apnea. The nerves and blood vessels are located at the back of the socket of the TMJ (jaw joint); therefore, a posterior position of the mandible and condyle can cause head, neck and facial pain as well as a host of other symptoms including dizziness, ringing in the ears, numbness in arms and hands, stuffiness in ears, back and shoulder pain, and difficulty swallowing..

A retruded mandible can cause the tongue to fall back and encroach upon the airway. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea and the whole spectrum of breathing disorders can also be caused by a mandible that is positioned too far posteriorly (Class II skeletal cases).


Patients with deep overbites often are overclosed vertically (lack of adequate posterior vertical dimension) and this causes the condyle to be posteriorly displaced, resulting in TM dysfunction. The mandible is trapped in a retruded position, which leads to chronic clenching and bruxing at night as the body attempts to reduce the muscle spasms that occur due to the shortening of those muscles. Bruxing is also caused by the patient moving the lower jaw and tongue forward in an effort to open up the airway.

Orthodontic education should be aimed at understanding and correcting the following:

· Constricted maxillary arch · Posterior crossbite · Constricted mandibular arch · …

Career Change Skills: 5 Methods to Help You Change Careers!

Oh, for the good old days. You went to school as far as you could, found a job, worked there until you retired and that was it. So, why isn’t this path working anymore? The economy seems to be changing before our eyes, an industry that held great promise a few years ago, now is disappearing. New job titles are popping up everywhere with new industries appearing all over the globe.

After 20 or more years working in one career, you now may be unemployed with little hope your old job will ever return. So now when you should be enjoying the satisfaction of working in a settled career you have to start all over again.

Welcome to the new career life cycle. The new career path is to get educated, find a career, get some experience; your skills max out, the career and job end, you add some more training, find another career and job, your skills max out, your career and job end and so it goes until you retire. The question it: how can you succeed in this type of unpredictable and chaotic work and career environment?

The foundation of moving from career to career or industry to industry is to identify all of your transferable skills that you can apply to a new career. In transferring these skills you need to identify and package them so the new employer has a high degree of assurance that you can perform the required duties of the new career.

Here are five ideas on how you can build and transfer the required skills:

1. Make it a habit to study careers. Be aware of your area job market and be alert about career and job trends. A good practice is to copy interesting job announcements. Take note of the skills required. Be aware of listed skills that you do not have.

2. Assess your skills. Take an inventory of your skills. Something that you may take for granted, for example, managing a time sensitive project and negotiating with vendors to get the job done on time, may be what you do well but from the outside it’s a series of valuable and hard-earned skills.

3. Never stop learning. Plan on a lifetime of learning. From learning a new language to the latest in technology you should be adding to your skills on a regular basis. A regular reading program should be central to your efforts. Local colleges and schools have a wealth of programs. Distance learning on the internet is exploding with a wide range of offerings.

4. Build your experience. Activities outside of your normal work are valuable methods to build your experience. Working with your church group or a charity that you have an interest in can all be methods to gain experience. Career group associations are another avenue where you can add to your experience.

5. Redefine yourself. You are not a job title. You are not the sum of your work experience. You are accomplishments …

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

The Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants textbook is composed for students ofboth biology and biochemistry. The contents are built around five major, but broad, topic areas. Among these topics, students will find valuable material on cell reproduction, energy flow, metabolic and developmental integration as well as plant environment.

Chapter Contents

The first chapters cover cellular concepts and other topics without the assumption of prior knowledge to precursor components. The contents are generally explanatory and provide understandable material. Intended for beginner students, the textbook of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants is rather mild and not at all too thick. It has 24 chapters that contains C4 metabolic cycle diagrams, micrographs of Krantz anatomy and close-up images of cells involved in C4 photosynthesis. More detailed presentations are found in the book to help students further understand the topic. The textbook is a great source for research material and is also considered to be a very reliable reference or handbook during class lectures. In some colleges and universities, it is compulsory to own at least one recent edition.

The chapters in the Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants textbook include topics on Compartments and Cell Reproduction. Under these topics, the student will find comprehensive details on the membrane structure, membranous organelles, the cell wall, membrane transport and cytoskeleton. Under the Cell Reproduction chapter, students can learn more on the activities of nucleic acids, amino acids, expression & organization of Genome and the assembly and degradation of protein synthesis.

Prerequisite and Helpful Subjects

Despite the subject matter of the textbook, there are other concepts presented in an attempt to compare how non-plant systems are similar or dissimilar to biological systems. Other subjects may seem incomprehensible as the topic escalates to a level beyond the college chemistry and biology. Students are more likely to understand certain difficult parts if they have had advanced coursework. Students without enough biochemisty experience may not be able to interpret data shown in the textbook, for example; gels and patch-damp tracks. A course or class in cellular or molecular biology could help students catch up with the difficult topics, those who have had advanced biochemistry lessons will not have much to worry about. The rest of the textbook, however, is completely comprehensible and does not usually require prerequisite subjects, provided that the student is in training to become a biologist or is taking up a class with that topic.

Available Nationwide

This textbook is available nationwide at almost all educational bookstores as well as online. Depending on the university, the textbook may be purchasable in the library or within school grounds. It is meant for students of biochemistry, cellular biology and molecular biology. The book is edited by three distinguished plant biologists; Wilhelm Gruissem, Russell L. Jones and Bob B. Buchanan. It has been credited as a major contribution to the literature of plant science and widely used as a handbook in biology classes.

Covering the themes of compartment, cell reproduction, energetic, metabolism and development, the textbook is …