How Far Has Science Come in Understanding the Causes of Prostate Cancer?

The study of prostate cancer has come a long way since its identification in 1853. Information concerning diagnostic methods, treatment options and even the pathophysiological characteristics of this condition has been provided in useful details by researchers, but the specific causes of prostate cancer remain unknown up to this day.

The causes of prostate cancer, or any other type of cancer for that matter, have remained a mystery to those who are studying the disease. Despite being able to explain the process by which cancer of the prostate develops, the exact reasons behind the condition's occurrence remains a challenge to cancer researchers.

Cancer of the prostate is a condition that affects only men. The prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system, helps make and store seminal fluid. It surrounds part of the urethra and is located under the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. Its position allows it to influence the processes of urination, ejaculation and defecation.

Although the causes of cancer of the prostate have yet to be fully understood, scientists were able to identify some of the factors associated with the risk of developing this condition. A man's chances of developing prostate cancer are affected by his age, genes, race, diet, lifestyle and the medications that he is taking. Cancer of the prostate is quite uncommon in men aged below 45. However, the chances of developing prostate cancer increase as a man ages. Based on statistics collected on prostate cancer patients, 70 is the average age of diagnosis.

Prostate cancer is a slow developing condition. Some men who have it never even knew that they had the condition and they could die of other causes before their cancer manifests itself. But a man who has a first degree relative, like a brother or a father, who has been diagnosed with this condition is believable to have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer, particularly if the relative was diagnosed at an early age.

Among the races, African Americans have been known to account for the highest percentage of diagnosed cases of prostate cancer. Asians, on the other hand, recorded the least number of diagnosed cases. Researchers speculate that this might be due to the difference between the diet and lifestyle of Western and Asian men. Westerners usually take in more red meat while Asians are more likely to eat vegetables and fruits. Men who have higher levels of the short chain fatty acid linolenic acid have also been found to have higher rates of cancer in the prostate. Other dietary factors that have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer include low intake of elements such as vitamin E, lycopene, omega-3 fatty acids and selenium.

In terms of genetics, no single gene has yet to be proved to be responsible for the development of prostate cancer, although BRCA1 and BRCA2, both risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have been implicated.

Although the causes of prostate cancer have not …

California Using Student Loan Defaults to Limit College Grants

The state of California is taking a page from the US Department of Education's playbook. In an effort to trim a near $ 27 billion budget deficit, lawmakers are exploring the possibility of limiting payouts from the state's Cal Grant college student financial aid program based on a school's student loan default rate.

Cal Grants are state-funded grants that provide students with awards from $ 576 to $ 11,124 a year, depending on their degree program, to help pay for college. Under the measure currently being considered by the state legislature, schools which default rate on student loans falls above a certain threshold would be barred from offering Cal Grants to their students. Square in the crosshairs of the legislative move would be for-profit colleges and universities that operate in California, many of which default rates currently exceed the proposed threshold.

Among the affected schools would be five for-profit behemoths: the University of Phoenix; DeVry University; ITT Technical Institute; Kaplan Colleges; and Corinthian Colleges, which operates Everest College, Heald College, and WyoTech.

Combined, those five school networks received more than $ 42 million in grants in the 2009-10 academic year. All five institutions currently have a default rate that exceeds the state's Student Default Rate Index, a new calculation designed to identify institutions which students routinely default on their school loans.

For-profit schools already took a potential hit in February when the California Student Aid Commission voted unanimously to reduce Cal Grant awards to for-profit colleges, should the Cal Grant program be subordinated to budget cuts. The Commission cited for-profit schools' high default rates, poor oversight, and high dropout rates as justification for yanking state funding for Cal Grants at these schools. As part of its proposal, the Commission recommended capping maximum annual Cal Grant awards for students at for-profit institutions.

Currently, students enrolled in a voluntary program at a California community college are eligible for annual Cal Grant awards of $ 576. Students enrolled in a voluntary program at a career training school or other non-community college institution – such as a for-profit school – are eligible to receive up to an additional $ 2,592 a year.

Students enrolled in a two-year or four-year degree program at a private college – which includes for-profit schools – are eligible to receive up to $ 9,708 a year.

The Commission's recommendation would limit Cal Grants for students seeking voluntary certificates or two-year degrees at a for-profit college to the maximum award for first-year students enrolled in degree program of at least one year, currently $ 1,551.

Students pursuing a bachelor's degree at a for-profit institution would be limited to the maximum Cal Grant award available for students pursuing a two-year or four-year degree within the California State University system, currently $ 4,884.

In its recommendations last month, the Commission had also proposed cutting Cal Grant awards at institutions with high student loan default rates – a version of the measure currently being considered by the California legislature. Under the bill in …

The City Of Cardiff – Europe's Youngest Capital

The origin of the name of the city of Cardiff is subject to much ambiguity. Cardiff is the Anglicised version of the Welsh name "Caerdydd". "Caerdydd" is split into two words; "Caer" means' fort, and "Dydd" or "Diff", which is thought by some to refer to the river Taff on which the castle of Cardiff stands. Others, however, take it to refer to the Roman general Didius, who was governor of nearby provinces. Although it is Europe's youngest capital, having only been made the Welsh capital in 1955, the earliest evidence of habituation in Cardiff can be traced all the way back to 600BC, with the European Celts, but it was in AD 75, when the Romans came and built a fort in Cardiff that it became renamed. The relics of a Roman wall can still be found beneath Cardiff Castle. Cardiff was attacked in AD 850 by the Vikings followed by a Norman takeover in the 12th century, and it was the Normans who built the Cardiff Castle, on the same site as the Roman fort.

The following centuries brought no enhancements of Cardiff's fame, although conflicts with English rulers were recurrent, as were foreign attacks by the Saxons and the Irish. The city relied on coal and iron industries like most of South Wales. In 1536 came the First Act of Union which aligned English and Welsh law, and made English the official language, a decision leading to a great deal of conflict until very recently.

The nineteenth century bought with itself the construction of a canal, and the opening of the Taff Vale Railway in 1841, which linked Cardiff with Merthyr Tydfil – the largest iron producing area in the world – enabling goods to be transported in less than an hour. This revolutionized the exportation of Welsh coal and propelled Cardiff to the front of the industry. 1859 saw the opening of the East Dock in Cardiff, augmenting Cardiff's status as a city of trade and industry and causing a steep rise in the population, and by the time it was made a city in 1905 by Edward VII, Cardiff had become a major exporter of coal and the population of Cardiff had risen by nearly 150,000 in the nineteenth century's last decade alone. The early 20th century saw the declination of the coal industry but the building of the civic buildings of Cathays Park such as the City Hall and the National Museum of Wales, which have come to be part of the city's character now.

With the Welsh language having been made official in 1942, Cardiff was designated the Welsh capital in 1955. With the growth of new industries and businesses, the increase in popularity of Cardiff as a university city and the formation of the new Welsh Assembly, Cardiff progressed significantly in the latter decades of the 20th century. The old dock area was transformed, and the new Cardiff Bay consists of various shops, restaurants and bars, giving the waterfront the most festive …

Homeschool and Actors

Everyone has seen the struggles associated with being a child actor or a child star. The nature of this lifestyle causes many of these youngsters to suffer from delays in everything from their academies to their social and emotional development, and as a result, many end up struggling as adults. Because of this, it is extremely important that these children be given every opportunity to develop their skills and talents beyond those associated with the small or silver screens.

One of the most effective and popular choices for actors to use in helping them develop proper academic skills and complete their education is to use homeschooling. Homeschooling is a popular choice because of the flexibility that it offers, both in terms of when and how lessons can be taught. Actors who are being homeschooled can complete lessons online, or they can actually have their "teachers" show up to their work and deliver a lesson personally. Either way, it is difficult to argue with the fact that homeschooling, especially for players, is very convenient.

The acting business being what it is means that student / actors have to teachers teachers work around their schedule. It is mostly for this reason that student / actors and their parents choose to turn to homeschooling or an accredited distance learning school. Some actors are on the road and way from home for months at a time, making it very difficult for them to attend traditional school. Homeschooling can allow academic curriculum to be individually tailor, and designed not to interfere with the requirements of an acting career.

Homeschooling is also an effective way of completing school sooner. Rather than try to complete a diploma or degree in the traditional length of time, meaning 4 to 6 years, a homeschooling curriculum can allow child actors to complete their education faster and more efficiently, as opposed to having it drag on over the course of several years.

Homeschooling actors and stars is certainly not something new. In fact, some of the most famous people in history, including sponsors, inventors, artists, actors, and athletes have all been homeschooled. President George Washington, inventor Thomas Edison, actor Charlie Chaplin, and scientist Albert Einstein are just a few of the famous people who have reaped the benefits of homeschooling.

Things can be difficult enough at work for the child actor without having to add additional stress from having to make time for school. By using homeschooling as an option, parents can provide their children with an effective learning curriculum without having to interfere with their acting career. In addition to the added convenience as well as the obvious flexibility associated with homeschooling, child actors can also benefit from the additional family support that they receive when they are being taught by their parents. There is nothing that can be more beneficial to a young actor than to have family members who are actually involved in an important aspect of their life, and homeschooling is certainly one effective way of accomplishing …