Early History of Oxford University

There has been a passing around Oxford since Roman times. However nothing permanent was established until about 700 AD when the hamlet of Oxnaforda became a strategic place between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex. After the Norman request the town was fortifies from about 1070. Some of these city walls remain and one of the mounds is still in existence (by the Old Prison)

Origins of the University.

The first evidence of learning in Oxford could be traced back to 720 AD when the local ruler King Didan founded a nunnery for his devout daughter Frideswide. This was built in the grounds of Christ Church Cathedral. This nunnery later dissected but it was taken over by a community of Anglican monks in about 1120. They rebuilt the chapel and dedicated the church to St Frideswide. This was the foundation for Christ Church Cathedral.

By 1167 there were 3 small monastic schools of learning in Oxford, of which the community in Christ Church was one. Around this time of 1167 many English schools were forced to flee the University of Paris. The current King, Henry II encouraged many of these to come to Oxford and continue their studies. The patronage of Henry II was important for the development of Oxford as a seat of learning.

The schools welcomed the traditional curriculam from Paris. All learning was under the Chuch of Rome and all scholars and Masters were in holy orders and used to wear a long black gown. These scholars were not of the nobility but often from humble origins but they played an important role in the administration of the state being the small% of the literate population.

In 1214 Oxford was recognized as a university by the Church and the first Chancellor was appointed. This attracted many scholars to come. These young boisterous schools often created friction and conflict with the local towns people and during this century there were frequently "town versus gown" riots which left a couple of people dead. Because of this many schools moved to other towns such as Cambridge leading to the formation of other universities.

In the 13th Century many masters created halls of residence to protect scholars from local hostility. Also in the 13th century there appeared the first of the University colleges. Colleges were different to the halls of residence because they were not tied to the monastic tradition. In fact many colleges preverted their members from taking monastic vows. This enabled more adventurous teaching than in the monastic halls. The colleges were like a secular response to the monastic halls of residence.

Oxford Colleges were usually founded by rich churchmen who had no offspring to leave their wealth. Thus it was seen as a commendable act to create a college and endow it with wealth. Because of their greater wealth and permanence the colleges flourished and gradually began to overtake and absorb the smaller, more impermanent halls.

The first 3 colleges to be set up were University college, Merton …

Teaching English in Mexico: Hermosillo, Sonora

About the city of Hermosillo: The Majestic “City of the Sun”

Hermosillo is the Capital City of the State of Sonora located 2037 km from Mexico City, via federal highways 57, 45, 110, 90 and 15 in Mexico. Hermosillo is also known as the City of the Oranges because of the abundance of oranges in its territory. Called the majestic “City of the Sun”, it is a sister city to Phoenix, Arizona. It has a population close to one million residents and is highly bi-lingual, with English being highly promoted and widely spoken – especially in tourism-related businesses.

Among the main attractions you can visit in Hermosillo are: The Government Palace, which has interesting murals, Zaragoza Square and its Moorish kiosk, The Cathedral of La Asuncion, The Del Carmen and Espiritu Santo Chapels, The modern building of the Autonomous University of Sonora, where the Museum of the State is situated. There are also: Madero Park, The Culture House, the Tres Pueblos Square and The Batuc Church. Nearby on La Campana Hill (the Bell Hill), there is a lookout from where you can enjoy a beautiful view of the city. Another attraction is the Abelardo L. Rodriguez Dam, an ideal place for fishing. Hermosillo has several hotels and restaurants where the tourist can taste the famous regional cuisine. The main festivity in Hermosillo is the Vendimia Feast, which is celebrated on June 21st-26th, with a parade of floats and an industrial exhibition.

How about teaching English in Sonora?

Instituto Soria High School

Hermosillo, Sonora

Contact: Selma Guerra, Language Program Coordinator

E-mail: [email protected]

The program is constantly improving, monitored by education investigators that work within our Soria Educational Group. Our Language Program includes English and French. Currently there are about 600 students. The campus is located downtown, close to the commercial and financial area of the city. Our teachers work 40 hours a week, 20 teaching hours, and 20 hours organizing and preparing material, lesson plans, attending to workshops, and other activities related to the field. Our groups vary from 10 to 25 students. Teaching at Instituto Soria is a great opportunity for teachers: the school was founded in 1918 and is located about three hours from the U.S.A. border. You will have access to the Pacific Ocean, which is about an hour from the city. The climate is very hot, so we ask our prospects to have been in hot weather before applying. The requirements for this full-time position are: Native English speaker, a Bachelors degree in related field (this is Mandatory), some teaching experience, 26 year old minimum age; you must be willing to work as part of a team, be sociable, dynamic and flexible with an excellent personal appearance. Some Spanish speaking ability is also desired.

Universidad del Noroeste

Hermosillo, Sonora

Contact: Carmen Garcia, Language Department Coordinator

E-mail: [email protected]

University seeking 3 full time EFL teachers with experience working with groups of up to 20 students. Requirements include a Masters Degree in related field (MANDATORY), ability to speak Spanish …

Careers in Accounting Firms

Individuals who are interested in working for accounting firms will find that there ample opportunities in this field. Accountants are needed in every section of the work-a-day-world including businesses, schools, non-profits, government agencies and more.

These professionals are needed to crunch numbers, handle taxes, balance the budget and have payroll doled out appropriately. These math brained individuals work with investment planning, management issues, retirement funding, scrutinizing loans and keeping up with current tax laws.

A person with a strong aptitude in mathematics and finance may be drawn to this career choice. The employment outlook in this arena is healthy and continues to grow. Taxation rules and regulations change every year; it takes a great amount of knowledge and expertise to keep up with the ever changing details.

The most common employment arenas where accountants may work include internal auditing, government, business management and the public sector. Internal auditors are usually employed to audit large organizations in order to make certain that proper procedures and practices are in compliance. Governmental work would entail dealing with the finances of state, local or federal agencies or bureaus.

Employees of the Internal Revenue Service work for the government and they are the watchdogs of the tax world. Business management duties may include scrutinizing budgets, costs, and payroll. Those that work in the public sector may be in business for themselves. They would help individuals or companies with their taxes, investments and retirement planning, debt management and more.

The schooling that an accounting employee would need varies by their job title and level of certification. Bookkeepers don’t need a formal degree to keep books. Clerks don’t have to have degrees either. Loan officers, budget analysts, tax collectors or examiners, and bill collectors are occupations which are similar and require a varying amount of education.

Most accountants, however, do need a Bachelors’ degree in mathematics, finance or accounting. In order to become a CPA, which stands for certified public accountant, not only must a four year degree be held but a formal certification also. In order to be certified, a test must be passed. The test is challenging and is given out by the State Board of Accountancy.

The more education, certification required and responsibility a job has in this field, the higher the salary usually is. The most highly paid and lucrative positions in this field tend to be those in the private or public sector. Internal auditors and government workers follow. New graduates often work under the supervision of senior professionals in order to gain competence and experience.

Individuals who enjoy this work tend to be introverts who enjoy toiling away on their own. They must have good concentration skills, an excellent mathematics aptitude and be very honest and hard-working. They are being trusted to guide individuals, governmental agencies and businesses in all matters that pertain to finances.

Chances of obtaining employment in accounting firms are excellent for the right individuals. With the appropriate experience and education, an individual could become a CPA, clerk, …

End the Madness: Down with the College Football BCS System

Lets' face it: the BCS is a piece of garbage. It encourages unsportsmanlike behavior – and there really seems to be too much of that these days – by forcing teams to run up scores to maintain high poll positions. It safeguards corruption by allowing poll voters to affect dramatic changes at the last minute, bowing to political pressure. It has responded in weaker overall bowl matchups. And worst of all, it denies us the ability to settle the matter of the championship on the field.

Auburn, who will face ninth-ranked and two loss Virginia Tech in the Sugar Bowl, are the first team to go undefeated in the SEC and be denied a shot at the title. They beat three top ten teams, and a good Tennessee team twice. Auburn would actually be better off under the pre-BCS system because there would at least be the possibility of sharing the title.

California led Texas in the BCS and was poised for a deserved shot in the Rose Bowl until, at the last minute, the last night of college football – on a night when Cal faced a tough competitor in Southern Miss after a long trip across the country – some voters raised Texas above Cal. This came after two weeks of politicking by Texas coach Matt Brown. There were even reports that some ballots in Texas were submitted before the games were even done.

California passed on the opportunity to score a very late, meaningless touch down, and it's likely that move had an impact on their drop in the polls. There is no longer any room for sportsmanship when a BCS bowl is on the line. A team competing for positioning in the BCS has no choice but to pummel its opponents.

The tie-ins the major bowls now have to conference championships has replied in an 8-3 Pittburgh team playing undefeated Utah in the Fiesta Bowl, and a two loss Virginia Tech taking on undefeated Auburn in the Orange. Meanwhile, one loss Cal takes on 7-4 Texas Tech in the Holiday Bowl. Are these the best possible matchups that could have been put together?

I do not think the creators of the BCS envisioned what we have now. I really believe it was an attempt to have something better. But it's time to admit that the system is a failure, and move on. The old system is better than what we have now. A playoff system is very feasible – given that it already exists in every sport except major college football – and would generate even more money than the current bowl system. The argument that it would take too much time away from the players' schoolwork is rubbish. Will we ever know the true details of the conspiracy among the university members, the bowls, and any number of parties, to deny us an honest play system? I doubt it. But it is shameful that the presidents of the NCAA-member universities allow such a system, that …

3 Motivational Strategies in the Workplace Proven to Achieve Success in Your Career

Everyone would agree that there really is no point in dragging yourself to the workplace if you're not in your best or if you're driving level is way down there. That's counterproductive! That's why you need to find the best motivational strategies in the workplace that will truly work for you to help you succeed in the workplace such as starting with the right attitude, competitiveness with your collections, and thinking about your compensation package.

But first, let's establish one very important aspect of your working life; your regular working shift, whether you're working during the night or during the day. There's no point in holding on to a shift if your body, heart and mind do not agree with the sort of schedule that you're on. They should be congruent all the time. Most people find that they are more productive during the day, while there are quite a number of people who can churn out productivity during the night.

Start your day (or night) with the right attitude

As they say, it's all in the mind. You can start your day right by thinking right, thereby creating a powerful positive attitude within your whole being. Only your mind and the preparedness that you've caused yourself to be in by thinking the right things to do to create a momentum can help you achieve success day in and day out.

One of the most powerful motivational strategies in the workplace that you can do even before reaching your office, or wherever you're working, is to create a mental picture of the things that you want to accomplish and create a mental emotion that it brings when you've done that you wish to accomplish at work. Hold on to those mental pictures while you're on your way to work and even as you reach the workplace. By doing so, you'll be able to create a powerful momentum in your head that will push your entire being into accomplishing your goal.

Remember that our thoughts are very powerful. If you start your day right with a positive mental thought, you'll have the right attitude to help you through the day at work.

There's nothing quite like competitive with collections

You do not have to go yelling at your peers at work that you've got a challenge for them. Just silently try to outdo them at work without them having to know it. If you know who among your collections is churning out the most number of, say, sales on a monthly basis, make it as your holy resolve to beat his numbers. Perhaps you find yourself struggling to go to work on time, why not find out who among your peers is the most punctual and try to beat his time.

By competitiveness with colleges, you give yourself a dose of adrenalin to keep yourself motivated throughout the day. But do not burn yourself out with just one type of challenge. If you've completed one challenge or if you can not …

Personal Career Development

Nobody wants to stay in the same place, at the same income, doing the same work. It does not matter if you're a 16 year old bag boy at the local grocery store or an executive at a large multi-national corporation, everyone wants to move ahead in their career. The problem many people face is not that they do not have the proper credentials or skills to move ahead, they just do not know how they can do it.

Personal care development is a simple, yet long term process. As with everything else in life it's impossible to see results in one day but if you're willing to put in the effort the rewards will be worth it. The process of career development requires a person to have discipline and set goals, but not only set them, you need to aim to achieve them as well. When you commit yourself to personal care development and maintain a strong discipline you'll be able to leverage your time and money and eventually leverage your results.

One of the biggest commitments you must make is to never stop learning, life is just one big school that never ends and neither should your professional training and development. If you have the opportunity to study something that you know will make you a more highly trained professional than you must do it. Make sure that you read up on the latest books, attend training seminars, and do not be afraid to ask professionals in your line of business for assistance and guidance. They've already been where you want to go and their advice is priceless, and many times free of charge.

You must also remember to take advantage of any opportunity your company gives you in terms of training or education. Not only will this corporate training provide you with new skills but it will also show management that you are willing to go the extra mile to succeed. One very easy tool you can immediately put into action is networking with other professionals in your industry. Not only will you be able to bounce ideas, problems, and solutions off of each other but even if you are in competitive companies if a new job opening is available you will already have a foot in the door for a higher paying job.

After you have polished up on your training and networking the absolute most critical aspect of your personal career development is not focusing on your success, it's focusing on your company's success. In the corporate environment an employee's success is the company's success and an employee's failure is the company's failure. If you ask any company what their most important asset is they will tell you it's their people.

You must ask yourself what your role in the company is, how it affects their revenue, and how you can do your part to increase that revenue. If you're in sales you need to focus on setting goals that will achieve more sales, if …